Police. The objects of a police force are, first, the prevention of crime ; second, its detection; third, the apprehension and punishment of offenders; and it is especially their duty to impress the minds of evil disposed persons with the conviction that their apprehension and punishment will he the sure consequence of the transgression of the law.
Prevention Of Crime. When a breach of the peace is likely to take place, as when persons are making preparations to fight, even within a house, a constable may enter the house to prevent them, and take the parties into custody, and should the doors be closed, he may break them open upon refusal of admission. If a person threaten another with immediate personal violence, a constable may interfere; or if one draw a weapon upon another, attempting to strike, a constable may take him into custody ; or if a person enter the house of another, although peaceably and lawfully, a constable may, at the request of the owner, having first requested him to go out, turn him out; but if persons be merely quarrelling or insulting each other, a constable has no right to take them into custody, but should be ready to prevent a breach of the peace. A constable may apprehend, and lodge in the station-house till taken before a magistrate, a person begging, or encouraging a child so to do ; or lodging in any deserted or unoccupied building, or in the open air, not having any visible means of subsistence, and not giving a good account of himself or herself; a person wandering abroad, and endeavouring, by the exposure of wounds, or deformities, to obtain alms ; or going about to procure charitable contributions of any kind, under any false or fradulent pretence. A person playing, or betting in any street, highway, or other public place, at or with any table or instrument of gaming, at any game er pretended game of chance - a person having in his possession a picklock, crow, jack, bit, or other implement with intent feloniously to break into a building ; or if armed with a gun or offensive weapon with intent to commit a felonious act - a person after sunset, and before sunrising carrying a bundle of goods suspected to be stolen
A person drawing a truck, or carriage, rolling a cask, or wheel, or carrying a ladder or a placard upon the footway, affixing posting bills, blowing a horn, or using a noisy instrument, ringing a door bell, wilfully extinguishing the light of any lamp, Hying a kite, sliding, or playing at any game on the footway, or committing any other offence whereby the public thoroughfare is obstructed, or an offence is committed to the annoyance of the passengers or neighbourhood., in view of a constable, may be taken into custody.
Persons charged with aggravated assaults may be apprehended without a warrant, although not in the view of a constable, if, by reason of the recent commission of the offence, a magistrate's warrant for 1 is apprehension could not have been obtained. Constables may apprehend offenders whose names and residences are unknown to them, as any street musician who shall have been required to depart from the neighbourhood of a house on account of the illness of any inmate, or for other reasonable cause.
It is the duty of the police to warn persons, and in case their warning is not immediately attended to, to summon persons committing, amongst others, the following offences: - Burning corks, hooping barrels, hewing stones, laying coals or other materials, or beating carpets in the streets or public thoroughfares, or throwing dirt or rubbish into the streets or river Thames, neglecting to sweep the footways opposite to or adjoining their houses, obstructing footways by projections, or leaving cellars and areas dangerously open. Persons so offending are liable to a penalty of forty shillings ; and if, by the commission of any of the offences above enumerated, any person shall suffer any hurt or damage, a magistrate may order reasonable compensation to be made to the amount of ten pounds.
In cases of fire the police are to keep the ground and the streets in the immediate vicinity clear of obstructions, and to render every assistance possible in the removal of property, conformably with the wishes and suggestions of the proprietors; and if desired, articles of value may be conveyed to the nearest station-house.
Duties Of The Police. They arc to be civil and respectful to the public, par-ticularly females needing their assistance; but are forbidden to enter into conversation with any person whomsoever, except on matters relating to their duty. They are not to refute assistance for the protection of person and property near their own beats; and under no pretence whatever may any member of the police force take a gratuity from any person, or receive any penalty for lodging or supporting any information, without the express permission of the Commissioner.
In cases of robbery, they are not to relax their endeavours until the offender is brought to justice.
In the execution of their duty they are to be very particular not to use unnecessary violence, and must not use their staves because the party in custody is violent in behaviour or language ; or use any language towards persons in their custody calculated to provoke or offend them. And it is the duty of the inspector to pay instant and particular attention to all complaints made against any individual of the police force, to enter the complaint in a book, and to request the complainant to sign the entry.
The inspector or station-sergeant must discharge, upon his recognizances, with or without sureties, when no magistrate is sitting, any person charged with an offence for which he is liable to be summarily convicted, or with having carelessly done any hurt or damage; or even a person charged with a felony or grave misdemeanor, in custody without a warrant, upon the refusal of the person making the charge to enter into a recognizance.
No person is to be permitted to smoke or drink in a station-house, or to remain there except while actually engaged in business.
All money or other property brought to the station-house is to be marked by the inspector or station-sergeant, and entered in a book, and, if taken from a prisoner, is not to be returned till the decision of the magistrate is known ; but this is not to prevent any small sum being spent in refreshment.