(See also Poods.)

Butter Color.-—Orlean, 80 parts, by weight; curcuma root (turmeric), 80 parts, by weight; olive oil, 240 parts, by weight; saffron, 1 part, by weight; alcohol, 5 parts, by weight. The orlean and turmeric are macerated with olive oil and expressed. The weight of the filtered liquid is made up again to 240 parts, by weight, with olive oil, next the filtered saffron-alcohol extract is added, and the alcohol is expelled again by heating the mixture.

Artificial Butter

I

Carefully washed beef suet furnishes a basis for the manufactures of an edible substitute for natural butter. The thoroughly washed and finely chopped suet is rendered in a steam-heated tank; 1,000 parts of fat, 300 parts of water, 1 part of potassium carbonate, and 2 stomachs of pigs or sheep, are taken. The temperature of the mixture is raised to 113° P. After 2 hours, under the influence of the pepsin in the stomachs, the membranes are dissolved and the fat is melted and rises to the top of the mixture. After the addition of a little salt the melted fat is drawn off, stood to cool so as to allow the stearine and palmitin to separate, and then pressed in bags in a hydraulic press. Forty to 50 per cent of solid stearine remains, while SO to 60 per cent of fluid oleopalmitin (so-called "oleomargarine") is pressed out. The "oleo oil" is then mixed with 10 per cent of its weight of milk and a little butter color and churned. The product is then worked, salted, and constituted the "oleomargarine," or butter substitute. Leaf lard can be worked in the same way as beef suet, and will yield an oleopalmitin suitable for churning up into a butter substitute.

II

Fat from freshly slaughtered cattle after thorough washing is placed in clean water and surrounded with ice, where it is allowed to remain until all animal heat has been removed. It is then cut into small pieces by machinery and cooked at a temperature of about 150° F. (65.6° C.) until the fat in liquid form has separated from the tissue, then settled until it is perfectly clear. Then it is drawn into the graining vats and allowed to stand for a day, when it is ready for the presses. The pressing extracts the stearine, leaving a product commercially known as oleo oil which, when churned with cream or milk, or both, and with usually a proportion of creamery butter, the whole being properly salted, gives the new food product, oleomargarine.

III

In making butterine use neutral lard, which is made from selected leaf lard in a very similar manner to oleo oil, excepting that no stearine is extracted. This neutral lard is cured in salt brine for from 48 to 70 hours at an ice-water temperature. It is then taken and, with the desired proportion of oleo oil and fine butter, is churned with cream and milk, producing an article which when properly salted and packed is ready for the market. In both cases coloring matter is used, which is the same as that used by dairymen to color their butter. At certain seasons of the year—viz., in cold weather, a small quantity of sesame oil or salad oil made from cottonseed oil is used to soften the texture of the product.

IV

"Ankara" is a substance which in general appearance resembles a good article of butter, being rather firmer at ordinary temperatures than that substance, approaching the consistency of cocoa butter. It is quite odorless, but in taste it resembles that of a fair article of butter and, what is more, its behavior under heat is very similar to that of butter—it browns and forms a sort of spume like that of fat. Ankara consists of a base of cocoa butter, carrying about 10 per cent of milk, colored with yolk of egg. While not derived from milk, on the one hand, nor does it come from a single vegetable or animal fat on the other, ankara may be considered as belonging to the category of the margarines. Ankara is obtained in the market in the form of cakes or tablets of 2 pounds in weight.

V

Fresh butter, 150 parts, by weight; animal fat, 80 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 40 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 30 parts, by weight.

VI

Fresh butter, 100 parts, by weight; animal fat, 100 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoa-nut oil, 20 parts, by weight.

VII

Fresh butter, 50 parts, by weight; animal fat, 150 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoa-nut oil, 20 parts, by weight.

It is seen that these three varieties contain respectively 50, 33, and about 16 per cent of cow's butter. The appearance of the mixture is nearly perfect.

Formulas V to VII are for a Russian artificial butter called " Perepusk."