The making of chewing gum is by no means the simple operation which it seems to be. Much experience in manipulation is necessary to succeed, and the published formulas can at best serve as a guide rather than as something to be absolutely and blindly followed. Thus, if the mass is either too hard or soft, change the proportions until it is right; often it will be found that different purchases of the same article will vary in their characteristics when worked up. But given a basis, the manufacturer can flavor and alter to suit himself. The most successful manufacturers attribute their success to the employment of the most approved machinery and the greatest attention to details. The working formulas and the processes of these manufacturers are guarded as trade secrets, and aside from publishing general formulas, little information can be given.

Chicle gum is purified by boiling with water and separating the foreign matter. Flavorings, pepsin, sugar, etc., are worked in under pressure by suitable machinery. Formula:

I

Gum chicle......... 1 pound

Sugar............. 2 pounds

Glucose............. 1 pound

Caramel butter..... 1 pound

First mash and soften the gum at a gentle heat. Place the sugar and glucose in a small copper pan; add enough water to dissolve the sugar; set on a fire and cook to 244° F.; lift off the fire; add the caramel butter and lastly the gum; mix well into a smooth paste; roll out on a smooth marble, dusting with finely powdered sugar, run through sizing machine to the proper thickness, cut into strips, and again into thin slices.

II

Chicle............ 6 ounces

Paraffine.......... 2 ounces

Balsam of Tolu ... 2 drachms Balsam of Peru... 1 drachm

Sugar........... 20 ounces

Glucose........... 8 ounces

Water............ 6 ounces

Flavoring, enough. Triturate the chicle and balsams in water, take out and add the paraffine, first heated. Boil the sugar, glucose, and water together to what is known to confectioners as "crack " heat, pour the syrup over the oil slab and turn into it the gum mixture, which will make it tough and plastic. Add any desired flavor.

III

Gum chicle........ 122 parts

Paraffine.......... 42 parts

Balsam of Tolu. ... 4 parts

Sugar............ 384 parts

Water............ 48 parts

Dissolve the sugar in the water by the aid of heat and pour the resultant syrup on an oiled slab. Melt the gum, balsam, and paraffine together and pour on top of the syrup, and work the whole up together.

IV

Gum chicle........ 240 parts

White wax........ 64 parts

Sugar............ 640 parts

Glucose........... 128 parts

Water............ 192 parts

Balsam of Peru. .. 4 parts Flavoring matter, enough. Proceed as indicated in II.

V

Balsam of Tolu...... 4 parts

Benzoin............ 1 part

White was.......... 1 part

Paraffine............ 1 part

Powdered sugar. ... 1 part Melt together, mix well, and roll into sticks of the usual dimensions.

Mix, and, when sufficiently cool, roll out into sticks or any other desirable form.