A very strong, stiff paste for fastening cardboard mounts to frames, wood, and other materials is prepared by making a bowl of starch paste in the usual way, and then adding 1 ounce of Venice turpentine per pound of paste, and boiling and stirring the mixture until the thick turpentine has become well incorporated. Venice turpentine stirred into flour paste and boiled will also be found a very adhesive cement for fastening cardboard, strawboard, leatherette, and skiver leather to wood or metal; but owing to the resinous nature of the Venice turpentine, such pastes are not suitable for mounting photographic prints. The following half-dozen compounds are suitable mountants to use with silver prints:

Alcohol, absolute.... 10 ounces

Gelatine, good...... 1 ounce

Glycerine........0.5 to 1 ounce

Soak the gelatine in water for an hour or two until it is completely softened; take the gelatine out of the water, and allow it to drain, and put it into a bottle and pour alcohol over it; add the glycerine (if the gelatine is soft, use only 0.5 ounce; if the gelatine is hard, use 1 ounce of the glycerine), then melt the gelatine by standing the bottle in a vessel of hot water, and shake up very well. For use, remelt by heat. The alcohol prevents the prints from stretching or cockling, as they are apt to, under the influence of the gelatine.

In the following compound, however, only sufficient alcohol is used to serve as an antiseptic, and prevent the agglutinant from decomposing : Dissolve 4 ounces of photographic gelatine in 16 ounces of water (first soaking the gelatine therein for an hour or two until it is completely softened), then remove the gelatine from the water, allow it to drain, and put it into the bottle, and pour the alcohol over it, and put in the glycerine (if the gelatine is soft, use only 1/2 ounce; if the gelatine is hard, use 1 ounce of the glycerine), then melt the gelatine by standing the bottle in a vessel of hot water, and shake up well and mix thoroughly. For use, remelt by heat. The alcohol prevents the print from stretching or cockling up under the influence of the gelatine.

The following paste agglutinant is one that is very permanent and useful for all purposes required in a photographic studio: Take 5 pints of water, 10 ounces of arrowroot, 1 ounce of gelatine, and a 0.5 pint (10 fluidounces) of alcohol, and proceed to combine them as follows: Make arrowroot into a thick cream with a little of the water, and in the remainder of the water soak the gelatine for a few hours, after which melt the gelatine in the water by heating it, add the arrowroot paste, and bring the mixture to the boil and allow to boil for 4 or 5 minutes, then allow to cool, and mix in the alcohol, adding a few drops of oil of cloves.

Perhaps one of the most useful compounds for photographic purposes is that prepared as follows: Soak 4 ounces of hard gelatine in 15 ounces of water for a few hours, then melt the gelatine by heating it in a glue pot until the solution is quite clear and free from lumps, stir in 65 fluidounces of cold water so that it is free from lumps, and pour in the boiling-hot solution of gelatine and continue stirring, and if the starch is not completely cooked, boil up the mixture for a few minutes until it "blows," being careful to keep it well stirred so as not to burn; when cold add a few drops of carbolic acid or some essential oil as an antiseptic to prevent the compound from decomposing or becoming sour.

A useful photographic mucilage, which is very liquid, is obtained by mixing equal bulks of gum-arabic and gum-dragon mucilages of the same consistence. The mixture of these mucilages will be considerably thinner than either of them when alone.

As an agglutinant for general use in the studio, the following is recommended: Dissolve 2 ounces of gum arabic in 5 ounces of water, and for every 250 parts of the mucilage add 20 parts of a solution of sulphate of aluminum, prepared by dissolving 1 part of the sulphate in 20 parts of water (common alum should not be used, only the pure aluminum sulphate, because common alum is a mixture of sulphates, and usually contaminated with iron salts). The addition of the sulphate solution to the gum mucilage renders the latter less hygroscopic, and practically waterproof, besides being very adhesive to any materials, particularly those exhibiting a smooth surface.