I

Acorn.—From acorns deprived of their shells, husked, dried, and roasted.

II

Bean.—Horse beans roasted along with a little honey or sugar.

III

Beet Root.—From the yellow beet root, sliced, dried in a kiln or oven, and ground with a little coffee.

IV

Dandelion. — From dandelion roots, sliced, dried, roasted, and ground with a little caramel.

All the above are roasted, before grinding them, with a little fat or lard. Those which are larger than coffee berries are cut into small slices before being roasted. They possess none of the exhilarating properties or medicinal virtues of the genuine coffee.

V

Chicory.—This is a common adulterant. The roasted root is prepared by cutting the full-grown root into slices, and exposing it to heat in iron cylinders, along with about 1.5 per cent or 2 per cent of lard, in a similar way to that adopted for coffee. When ground to powder in a mill it constitutes the ohi-

cory coffee so generally employed both as a substitute for coffee and as an adulterant. The addition of 1 part of good, fresh, roasted chicory to 10 or 12 parts of coffee forms a mixture which yields a beverage of a fuller flavor, and of a deeper color than that furnished by an equal quantity of pure or unmixed coffee. In this way a less quantity of coffee may be used, but it should be remembered that the article substituted for it does not possess in any degree the peculiar exciting, soothing, and hunger-staying properties of that valuable product. The use, however, of a larger proportion of chicory than that just named imparts to the beverage an insipid flavor, intermediate between that of treacle and licorice; while the continual use of roasted chicory, or highly chicorized coffee, seldom fails to weaken the powers of digestion and derange the bowels.