This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Iron is preserved from rust by covering it with a coating of molybdenum, as follows: Water, 1,000 parts; ammonium molybdate, 1 part; ammonium nitrate, 15 to 20 parts. Suspend the object at the negative pole of a battery. The current ought to have a strength of 2 to 5 amperes per cubic decimeter.
The iron or steel is first covered with a coating of manganese peroxide by immersing as an anode in a bath containing about 0.05 per cent of chloride or sulphate of manganese and from 5 to 25 per cent of ammonium nitrate. The bath is electrolyzed cold, making use of a cathode of charcoal. Feeble currents (1 or 2 amperes) produce an adherent and unchangeable deposit.
Prepare a solution of ferric chloride of density 1.281, 14 parts; mercury chloride, 3 parts; fuming nitric acid, 3 parts; cupric sulphate,
3 parts; water, 80 parts. Give to the piece of ordnance 2 or 3 coatings of the solution, taking care always to scratch the preceding layer with a steel brush before spreading the second. Afterwards, the object is plunged in a solution of potassium sulphide in 900 parts of water.
It is left in this for 10 days. It is removed by washing with soap and hot water. The object is rinsed, dried, and finally brushed with linseed-oil varnish.
Dissolve 1 part of acetate of silver in 20 parts of essence of lavender; coat the surface of iron with this liquid by means of a brush and raise the temperature to 292° P. A brilliant green color is developed on the surface.
The object is first covered by the galvanic method by means of a solution of cyanide of copper and potassium, then covered electrolytically with a thin deposit of zinc. It is dried and cleaned with a little washed chalk and finally immersed in boiling linseed oil. The surface of the piece after a few seconds, at a temperature of 310° F., appears as if there had been a real penetration of copper and zinc; that is to say, as though there were a formation of tombac.
The piece, when scraped, is coppered with the following bath: Cupric chloride, 10 parts; hydrochloric acid, 80 parts; nitric acid, 10 parts. It is rubbed with a rag and washed with pure water, and then rubbed with the following solution: Ammonium chlorhydrate, 4 parts; oxalic acid, 1 part; water, 30 parts.
Chloride of gold is dissolved either in oil of turpentine or in ether, and this solution is applied with the brush on the metallic surface, after being perfectly scraped. It is allowed to dry, and then heated more or less strongly for obtaining the necessary adherence. When it is dry the gilding is burnished.