This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Cements for the manufacture of linoleum and other similar substances are composed to a large extent of linseed oil, oxidized or polymerized until it has become solid. The old process of preparing this solid oil is tedious, costly, and invites danger from fire. It consists in running linseed oil over sheets of thin cloth hung from the top of a high building. The thin layer of oil upon the cloth dries, and then a second layer is obtained in the same way. This is continued until a thick skin of solid oil is formed on either side of the cloth. A new method of solidifying linseed oil is by means of alkalies. The drying oils, when heated with basic substances such as the alkalies, polymerize and become solid. Hertkorn makes use of the oxides of the alkaline earths, or their salts with weak acids, such as their soaps. When chalk or lime is added to the oil during the process of oxidation, either during the liquid or the plastic stage, it forms a calcium soap, and causes polymerization to set in in the partially oxidized oil. Similarly, if caustic soda or caustic potash be added, the action is not caused by them in the free state, but by the soaps which they form. Oxidized oil is more readily saponified than raw oil, and the greater the oxidation, the more readily does saponification take place. Lime soaps are not soluble in water, whereas soda and potash soaps are. Consequently a cement made with the latter, if exposed to the weather, will be acted upon by rain and moisture, owing to the soluble soap contained in it, while a cement made with lime will not be acted upon. It is suggested that the action of the bases on linseed oil is simply due to their neutralization of the free acid. The acidity of linseed oil increases as it becomes oxidized. When the basic matter is added part of the free acid is neutralized, and polymerization sets in. The presence of a large amount of free acid must therefore hinder polymerization. From 5 to 10 per cent of chalk or lime is considered to be the amount which gives the best result in practice.
Linseed oil may be bleached by the aid of chemical bodies, the process of oxidizing or bleaching being best performed by means of peroxide of hydrogen. For this purpose, the linseed oil to be bleached is mixed with 5 per cent peroxide of hydrogen in a tin or glass bottle, and the mixture is shaken repeatedly. After a few days have elapsed the linseed oil is entirely bleached and clarified, so that it can be poured off from the peroxide of hydrogen, which has been reduced to oxide of hydrogen, i. e., water, by the process of oxidation. The use of another oxidizing medium, such as chloride of lime and hydrochloric acid or bichromate of calcium and sulphuric acid, etc., cannot be recommended to the layman, as the operation requires more care and is not without danger. If there is no hurry about the preparation of bleached linseed oil, sun bleaching seems to be the most recommendable method. For this only a glass bottle is required, or, better still, a flat glass dish, of any shape, which can be covered with a protruding piece of glass. For the admission of air, lay some sticks of wood over the dish and the glass on top. The thinner the layer of linseed oil, the quicker will be the oxidation process. It is, of course, necessary to place the vessel in such a manner that it is exposed to the rays of the sun for many hours daily.
Heat in a copper vessel 50 gallons Baltic oil to 280° F., add 2.5 pounds calcined white vitriol, and stir well together. Keep the oil at the above temperature for half an hour, then draw the fire, and in 24 hours decant the clear oil. It should stand for at least 4 weeks.
Put 236 gallons of oil into a copper boiler, pour in 6 pounds of oil of vitriol, and stir them together for 3 hours, then add 6 pounds fuller's earth well mixed with 14 pounds hot lime, and stir for 3 hours. The oil must be put in a copper vessel with an equal quantity of water. Now boil for 3 hours, then extinguish the fire. When cold draw off the water. Let the mixture settle for a few weeks.