In copper-plate engraving the plate must be covered with a dark-colored coating which, though entirely unaffected by the etching fluid, must be soft enough to allow the finest lines to be drawn with the needle and must also be susceptible of complete and easy removal when the etching is finished. Varnishes which possess these properties are called "etching grounds." They are made according to various formulas, but in all cases the principal ingredient is asphalt, of which only the best natural varieties are suitable for this purpose. Another common ingredient is beeswax, or tallow.

Etching grounds are usually made in small quantities, at a single operation, by melting and stirring the solid ingredients together and allowing the mass to cool in thin sheets, which are then dissolved in oil of turpentine. The plate is coated uniformly with this varnish through which the engraver's tool readily penetrates, laying bare the metal beneath. After the lines thus drawn have been etched by immersing the plate in acid, the varnish is washed off with oil of turpentine.

The following formulas for etching grounds have been extensively used by engravers:

I II III    IV

Yellow wax.....50 30 110    40 parts

Syrian asphalt. .. 20 20 25     40 parts

Rosin............ . . . .     20 parts

Amber............. 20     .. parts

Mastic.........25 25 25     ..parts

Tallow...............       2 parts

Bergundy pitch........     10 parts