I

Manila copal, spiritsoluble............ 12 parts

Ruby shellac, powdered ............. 62 parts

Venice, turpentine.. . . 12 parts

Spirit, 96 per cent.... 250 parts

The materials are dissolved cold in a covered vat with constant stirring, or better still, in a stirring machine, and filtered. For the pale shades take light ocher; for dark ones, Amberg earth, which are well ground with the varnish in a paint mill.

II

Shellac, A C leaf, 1.2 parts;

sandarac, 8 parts;

Manila copal, 2 parts;

rosin, 5 parts;

castor or linoleic acid or wood oil acid, 1.50 parts;

spirit (96 per cent), 65 parts.