The polishing of steel must always be preceded by a thorough smoothing, either with oilstone dust, fine emery, or coarse rouge. If any lines are left to be erased by means of fine rouge, the operation becomes tedious and is rarely successful. The oilstone dust is applied on an iron or copper polisher. When it is desired to preserve the angles sharp, at a shoulder, for instance, the polisher should be of steel. When using diamantine an iron polisher, drawn out and flattened with a hammer, answers very well. With fine rouge, a bronze or bell-metal polisher is preferable for shoulders; and for flat surfaces, discs or large zinc or tin polishers, although glass is preferable to either of these. After each operation with oilstone dust, coarse rouge, etc., the polisher, cork, etc., must be changed, and the object should be cleaned well, preferably by soaping, perfect cleanliness being essential to success. Fine rouge or diamantine should be made into a thick paste with oil; a little is then taken on the polisher or glass and worked until quite dry. As the object is thus not smeared over, a black polish is more readily obtained, and the process gets on better if the surface be cleaned from time to time.

For Fine Steel

Take equal parts (by weight) of ferrous sulphate—green vitriol—and sodium chloride—cooking salt—mix both well together by grinding in a mortar and subject the mixture to red heat in a mortar or a dish. Strong fumes will develop, and the mass begin to flow. When no more fumes arise, the vessel is removed from the fire and allowed to cool. A brown substance is obtained with shimmering scales, resembling mica. The mass is now treated with water, partly in order to remove the soluble salt, partly in order to wash out the lighter portions of the non-crystallized oxide, which yield an excellent polishing powder. The fire must be neither too strong nor too long continued, otherwise the powder turns black and very hard, losing its good qualities. The more distinct the violet-brown color, the better is the powder.

For polishing and cleaning fenders, fireirons, horses' bits, and similar articles : Fifty-six pounds Bridge water stone; 28 pounds flour emery; 20 pounds rotten stone; 8 pounds whiting. Grind and mix well.

To make iron take a bright polish like steel, pulverize and dissolve in 1 quart of hot water, 1 ounce of blue vitriol; 1 ounce of borax; 1 ounce of prussiate of potash; 1 ounce of charcoal; 1/2 pint of salt, all of which is to be added to one gallon of linseed oil and thoroughly mixed. To apply, bring the iron or steel to the proper heat and cool in the solution.