To Temper a Tap

After the tap has been cut and finished heat it in a pair of tongs to a blood-red heat over a charcoal fire or the blue flame of a Bunsen burner or blow pipe, turning it around so that one point does not get heated before another. Have ready a pail of clean, cold water, into which a handful of common salt has been put. Stir the water in the pail so that a whirlpool is set up. Then plunge the tap, point first and vertically, into the vortex to cool. The turning of the tap during heating, as well as the swirl of the quenching water, prevents distortion. In tempering, the temper of the tap requires to be drawn to a light straw color, and this may be done as follows: Get a piece of cast-iron tube about 3 inches in diameter and heat it to a dull-red heat for about 4 inches of its length. Then hold the tap, with the tongs, up the center of the tube, meanwhile turning the tap around until the straw color appears all over it. Then dip the tap in the water, when it will be found perfectly hard. The depth of the color, whether light or dark straw, must be determined by the nature of the cast steel being used, which can be gained only from experience of the steel.

Scissors Hardening

The united legs of the scissors are uniformly heated to a dark cherry red, extending from the point to the screw or rivet hole. This may be done in the naked fire, a feeble current of air being admitted until the steel commences to glow. Then the fire is left to itself and the scissor parts are drawn to and fro in the fire, until all the parts to be hardened show a uniform dark cherry red. The two legs are hardened together in water and then tempered purple red to violet.

The simultaneous heating, hardening, and tempering of the parts belonging together is necessary, so that the degree of heat is the same and the harder part does not cut the softer one.

In accordance with well-known rules, the immersion in the hardening bath should be done with the point first, slowly and vertically up to above the riveting hole.

Hardening without Scaling

Articles made of tool steel and polished may be hardened without raising a scale, thereby destroying the polish, by the following method: Prepare equal parts in bulk of common salt and (fine) corn meal, well mixed. Dip the article to be hardened first into water, then into the mixture and place it carefully into the fire. When hot enough to melt the mixture, take from

the fire and dip or roll in the salt and meal, replace in the fire and bring to the required heat for hardening. Watch the piece closely and if any part of it shows signs of getting dry, sprinkle some of the mixture on it. The mixture, when exposed to heat, forms a flux over the surface of the steel which excludes the air and prevents oxidation, and when cooled in water or oil comes off easily, leaving the surface as smooth as before heating. Borax would possibly give the same result, but is sometimes difficult to remove when cold.

Hardening with Glycerine

I

The glycerine employed must be of the density of 1.08 to 1.26 taken at the temperature of 302° F. Its weight must be equal to about 6 times the weight of the pieces to be tempered. For hard temper add to the glycerine J to 4 per cent of sulphate of potash or of manganese, and for soft temper 1 to 10 per cent of chloride of manganese, or 1 to 4 per cent of chloride of potassium. The temperature of the tempering bath is varied according to the results desired.

II

Glycerine, 8,000 parts, by weight; cooking salt, 500 parts, by weight; sal ammoniac, 100 parts, by weight; concentrated hydrochloric acid, 50 parts; and water, 10,000 parts, by weight. Into this liquid the steel, heated, for example, to a cherry red, is dipped. A reheating of the steel is not necessary.

To Remove Burnt Oil from Hardened Steel

To remove excess oil from parts that have been hardened in oil, place the articles in a small tank of gasoline, which, when exposed to the air, will dry off immediately, allowing the part to be polished and tempered without the confusing and unsightly marks of burnt oil.