The fineness of the powdered pigment is not a guarantee of the absence of gritty admixtures. The latter differ from the pigment proper in their specific gravity. If consisting of metallic oxides or metallic sulphides the sandy admixtures are lighter than the pigments and rise to the surface upon a systematic shaking of the sample. In the case of other pigments, e. g., aluminas and iron varnish colors, they collect at the bottom. For carrying out the test, a smoothly bored metallic tube about 1/2 to 3/4 inch in diameter and 6 to 7 inches long is used. Both ends are closed with screw caps and at one side of the tube some holes about 1/6 of an inch in diameter are bored, closed by pieces of a rubber hose pushed on. The tube is filled with the pigment powder, screwed up and feebly shaken for some time in a vertical position (the length of time varying according to the fineness of the powder). Samples may now be taken from all parts of the tube. Perhaps glass tubes would be preferable, but lateral apertures cannot be so readily made. After the necessary samples have been collected in this manner, they must be prepared with a standard sample, which is accomplished either by feeling the powder between the fingers or by inspecting it under a microscope, or else by means of the scratching test, which last named is the usual way. The requisites for these scratch tests consist of two soft, well-polished glass plates (2.5 x 2.25 inches) which are fixed by means of cement in two stronger plates of hard wood suitably hollowed out. The surface of the glass must project about 1/2 inch over the wooden frame. If a sample of the pigment powder is placed on such a glass plate, another plate is laid on top and both are rubbed slowly together; this motion will retain a soft, velvety character in case the pigment is free from gritty admixtures; if otherwise, the glass is injured and a corresponding sound becomes audible. Next the powder is removed from the plate, rubbing the latter with a soft rag, and examining the surface with a microscope. From the nature of the scratches on the plate the kind of gritty ingredients can be readily determined. The human finger is sufficiently sensitive to detect the presence of gritty substances, yet it is not capable of distinguishing whether they consist of imperfectly reduced or badly sifted grains of pigment or real gritty admixtures.