This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Thirty parts white lead; 2 parts ultramarine blue; 1 part burnt sienna.
Expense and trouble deter many a painter from having a color examined,
Five hundred parts white lead; 6 parts lampblack; 1 part Antwerp blue.
Twelve parts manganese; 5 parts steel filings; 3 parts whiting; 1 part oxide of cobalt.
Two hundred parts white lead; 5 parts ultramarine blue; 2 parts drop black.
One hundred and fifty parts white lead; 2 parts lampblack; 1 part orange chrome yellow; 1 part chrome red (American vermilion).
Fifty parts white lead; 1 part lampblack (increase proportion of white lead for light tints).
Ten parts white lead; 1 part graphite (plumbago).
Two hundred parts white lead; 2 parts lampblack; 1 part medium chrome green.
One hundred parts white lead; 1 part drop black.
One hundred parts white lead; 1 part ultramarine blue; 1 part drop black.
One hundred and fifty parts white lead; 2 parts lampblack; 3 parts Oxford ocher.
One hundred parts white lead; 3 parts drop black; 2 parts French ocher; 1 part light Venetian red.
For inside work and whenever desirable, the white lead may be replaced by zinc white or a mixture of the two white pigments may be used. Be it also remembered that pure colors, as a rule, will produce the cleanest tints and that fineness of grinding is an important factor. It will not be amiss to call attention to the fact that the excessive use of driers, especially of dark japans or liquid driers, with delicate tints is bad practice, and liable to ruin otherwise good effects in tints or delicate solid colors, although such an examination is often very necessary. For the practical man it is less important to know what percentage of foreign matter a paint contains, but whether substances are contained therein, which may act injuriously in some way or other.
If a pigment is to be tested for arsenic, pour purified hydrochloric acid into a test tube or a U-shaped glass vessel which withstands heat, add a little of the pigment or the colored fabric, wall paper, etc. (of pigment take only enough to strongly color the hydrochloric acid simply in the first moment), and finally a small quantity of stannous chloride. Now heat the test tube with its contents moderately over a common spirit lamp. If the liquid or mass has assumed a brown or brownish color after being heated, arsenic is present in the pigment or fabric, etc.
An effective but simple test for the durability of a color is to paint strips of thick paper and nail them on the wall in the strongest light possible. A strip of paper should then be nailed over oneatf of the samples of color so as to protect them from the light. On removing this the difference in shade between the exposed and unexposed portions will be very apparent. Some colors, such as the vermilionettes, will show a marked difference after even a few weeks.