Juniper gum or true sandarac comes in long, yellowish, dusty tears, and requires a high temperature for its manipulation in oil. The oil must be so hot as to scorch a feather dipped into it, before this gum is added; otherwise the gum is burned. Because of this, juniper gum is usually displaced in oil varnish by gum dammar. Both of these gums, by their dryness, counteract the elasticity of oil as well as of other gums. The usual sandarac of commerce is a brittle, yellow, transparent rosin from Africa, more soluble in turpentine than in alcohol. Its excess renders varnish hard and brittle. Commercial sandarac is also often a mixture of the African rosin with dammar or hard Indian copal, the place of the African rosin being sometimes taken by true juniper gum. This mixture is the pounce of the shops, and is almost insoluble in alcohol or turpentine. Dammar also largely takes the place of tender copal, gum anime, white amber, white incense, and white rosin. The latter three names are also often applied to a mixture of oil and Grecian wax, sometimes used in varnish. When gum dammar is used as the main rosin in a varnish, it should be first fused and brought to a boiling point, but not thawed. This eliminates the property that renders dammar varnish soft and "tacky" if not treated as above.

Venetian turpentine has a tendency to render varnish "tacky" and must be skillfully counteracted if this effect is to be avoided. Benzoin in varnish exposed to any degree of dampness has a tendency to swell, and must in such cases be avoided. Elemi, a fragrant rosin from Egypt, in time grows hard and brittle, and is not so soluble in alcohol as anime, which is highly esteemed for its more tender qualities. Copal is a name given rather indiscriminately to various gums and rosins. The East Indian or African is the tender copal, and is softer and more transparent than the other varieties; when pure it is freely soluble in oil of turpentine or rosemary. Hard copal comes in its best form from Mexico, and is not readily soluble in oil unless first fused. The brilliant, deep-red color of old varnish is said to be based on dragon's blood, but not the kind that comes in sticks, cones, etc. (which is always adulterated), but the clear, pure tear, deeper in color than a carbuncle, and as crystal as a ruby. This is seldom seen in the market, as is also the tear of gamboge, which, mixed with the tear of dragon's blood, is said to be the basis of the brilliant orange and gold varnish of the ancients.

Of all applications used to adorn and protect the surface of objects, oil varnishes or lacquers containing hard rosins are the best, as they furnish a hard, glossy coating which does not crack and is very durable even when exposed to wind and rain.

To obtain a varnish of these desirable qualities the best old linseed oil, or varnish made from it, must be combined with the residue left by the dry distillation of amber or very hard copal. This distillation removes a quantity of volatile oil amounting to one-fourth or one-fifth of the original weight. The residue is pulverized and dissolved in hot linseed-oil varnish, forming a thick, viscous, yellow-brown liquid, which, as a rule, must be thinned with oil of turpentine before being applied.

Hard rosin oil varnish of this sort may conveniently be mixed with the solution of asphalt in the oil of turpentine with the aid of the simple apparatus described below, as the stiffness of the two liquids makes hand stirring slow and laborious. A cask is mounted on an axle which projects through both heads, but is inclined to the axis of the cask, so that when the ends of the axle are set in bearings and the cask is revolved, each end of the cask will rise and fall alternately, and any liquid which only partly fills the cask will be thoroughly mixed and churned in a short time. The cask is two-thirds filled with the two thick varnishes (hard rosin in linseed oil and asphalt in the oil of turpentine) in the desired proportion, and after these have been intimately mixed by turning the cask, a sufficient quantity of rectified oil of turpentine to give proper consistence is added and the rotation is continued until the mixture is perfectly uniform.

To obtain the best and most durable result with this mixed oil, rosin, and asphalt varnish it is advisable to dilute it freely with oil of turpentine and to apply 2 or 3 coats, allowing each coat to dry before the next is put on. In this way a deep black and very glossy surface is obtained which cannot be distinguished from genuine Japanese lacquer.

Many formulas for making these mixed asphalt varnishes contain rosin— usually American rosin. The result is the production of a cheaper but inferior varnish. The addition of such soft rosins as elemi and copaiba, however; is made for another reason, and it improves the quality of the varnish for certain purposes. Though these rosins soften the lacquer, they also make it more elastic, and therefore more suitable for coating leather and textile fabrics, as it does not crack in consequence of repeated bending, rolling, and folding.

In coloring spirit varnish the alcohol should always be colored first to the desired shade before mixing with the rosin, except where ivory or Done black is used. If the color is taken from a gum, due allowance for the same must be made in the rosins of the varnish. For instance, in a varnish based on mastic, 10 parts, and tender copal, 5 parts, in 100 parts, if this is to be colored with, say, 8 parts of dragon's blood (or any other color gum), the rosins must be reduced to mastic, 8 parts, and tender copal, 4 parts. Eight parts of color gum are here equivalent to 3 parts of varnish rosin. This holds true with gamboge, aloes, myrrh, and the other gum rosins used for their color. This seeming disproportion is due to the inert matter and gum insoluble in alcohol, always present in these gum rosins.

Shellac Varnish

This is made in the general proportion of 3 pounds of shellac to a gallon of alcohol, the color, temper, etc., to be determined by the requirements of the purchaser, and the nature of the wood to which the varnish is to be applied. Shellac varnish is usually tempered with sandarac, elemi, dammar, and the oil of linseed, turpentine, spike, or rosemary.

Various impurities held in suspension in shellac varnish may be entirely precipitated by the gradual addition of some crystals of oxalic acid, stirring the varnish to aid their solution, and then setting it aside overnight to permit the impurities to settle. No more acid should be used than is really necessary.