In modern works the following coloring substances are used, separately and in blends: Saffron (brilliant golden yellow), dragon's blood (deep reddish brown), gamboge (bright yellow), Socotrine or Bombay aloes (liver brown), asphalt, ivory, and bone black (black), sandalwood, pterocarpus santalinus, the heartwood (dark red), Indian sandalwood, pterpcarpus indica, the heartwood (orange red), brazil wood (dark

yellow), myrrh (yellowish to reddish brown; darkens on exposure), madder (reddish brown), logwood (brown), red scammony rosin (light red), turmeric (orange yellow), and many others according to the various shades desired.

Varnish Manufacturing Hints

Glass, coarsely powdered, is often added to varnish when mixed in large quantities for the purpose of cutting the rosins and preventing them from adhering to the bottom and sides of the container. When possible, varnish should always be compounded without the use of heat, as this carbonizes and otherwise changes the constituents, and, besides, danger always ensues from the highly inflammable nature of the material employed. However, when heat is necessary, a water bath should always be used; the varnish should never fill the vessel over a half to three-fourths of its capacity.