[Gk. lampas.] A vessel used for giving light by means of a wick dipped in oil and lighted. In ancient times lamps were simply flat vessels made of earthenware or stone. Specimens of these have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. In later times they appear to have been formed from various metals, more particularly bronze. Lamps are now made to give an excellent light, and are also used for heating and cooking. Rushes, animal fats, and fish oils were first used for burning in lamps. These were followed by vegetable . oils, which in turn have been largely superseded by mineral oils, such as par-raflin, petroleum, kerosene, crystal and mineral sperm. The safety-lamp invented by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1815 is of great use in mining. It is covered with wire gauze, and gives the miner sufficient light without the danger of setting fire to inflammable gases. Arc lamps and incandescent lamps are devices for producing light by electricity.

CLANNY LAMP. DAVY LAMP.

CLANNY LAMP. DAVY LAMP.

ANCIENT LAMPS.

ANCIENT LAMPS.