Gardens are generally divided into three classes: 1. The flower-garden ; which, being designed both for pleasure and ornament, ought to be in the most conspicuous situation. 2. The fruit-garden, or orchard ; and, 3. The kit-chen-garden, which being calcu-lated for utility, should be planned in more distant situations. The two latter, however, are at present usually combined, as they equally require good soil and exposure.
The principal circumstances that merit attention in the laying out of gardens, are, situation, soil, water, and prospect; the most eligible of which we shall briefly state, referring the reader to the article Kitchen-garden, for a more particular account of the management of such ground as is designed for the supply of culinary vegetables ; and to that of Orchard, for the treatment of fruit-gardens.
1. The situation ought to be neither too elevated, nor too low : for if a garden be too high, it will be exposed to the attacks of the winds, which are very detrimental to to trees; and, if it be too low, the dampness, the vermin, and venomous creatures which breed in ponds and marshy places, contribute much to the unwholesome-ness of the spot. It is true, as Dr. Darwin has observed, that low situations are favourable in some respects, on account of their superior warmth, and of their being more sheltered from the cold north-east winds, which, in this climate, are accompanied with frost ; and from the boisterous south-west winds, that are very violent; and during summer, frequently injure the more delicate plants, by dashing their branches against each other. But in low situations, Dr. D. adds, the fogs in the vernal evenings moisten the young shoots and early flowers of trees, and thus expose them to the injuries of the frosty nights which succeed,
Succeed them, and which they generally escape, when placed in more elevated ground. - The best site, therefore, is on a gentle declivity, especially if it abound with springs, and the land surrounding the house be level : for the air will then be temperate, and the water decending from the hill, whether from springs or rain, will not only contribute to fertilize the soil, but also supply fountains, cascades, etc.; it will be farther useful for irrigating the adjacent valley, which, if the water be not suffered to stagnate, will thus be rendered fruitful and salubrious.
2. A good soil is an object of great importance. This may be ascertained, by observing whether there be any heath spontaneously growing on it, or other weeds that indicate a poor soil. But, if the land be covered with rich grass, fit for pasture, it will be advisable to investigate the depth of the vegetable earth, by digging holes in various parts, 6 feet in width and 4 in breadth : thus, if 21/2 or 3 feet in depth, of good mould, appear on the surface, the soil may be considered as excellent. - Good land must neither be too stony, nor too hard for the spade ; nor too dry, damp, sandy, or too light; lastly, neither too strong, nor clayey, as such soils are ill calculated for gardens.
3. The next requisite is water; the want of which is one of the greatest inconveniencies in gardening : nor should it be taken from cold springs; as river-water, or that from stagnant pools, is more proper, especially after it has been exposed to the rays of the sun during the day.
4. The prospect, though by no means an essential point, constitubes one of the greatest charms of a garden, which, if it happen to occupy a low and confined situation, is not only disagreeable, but also detrimental to the health of those who spend part of their time in such places.
In laying out a garden, its size ought never to exceed the ability or wants of the proprietor. The beauties of Nature should likewise be diligently studied; as gardens will continue to please in proportion as they approach to her design. Hence the several parts ought to be sufficiently diversified ; and the general disposition of them accommodated to the inequalities, as well as the different situations, of the soil. Nor should the number and species of trees and shrubs be disproportioned to each part; nor any objects that may conduce to ornament, be excluded from the view of the garden. Lastly, in designing these delightful spots, the constant aim should be to unite all that is natural, grand, and noble.— The curious reader, who is desirous to obtain more particular informa-tion, may with advantage consult Mr. Whbatley's classical work, entitled "Observations on Modern Gardening, illustrated by descrip-tions," 8vo. 3s. 6d. which is calculated alike to entertain and instruct.