1. Can popular government rise higher than the intelligence of the average voter? Illustrate by some action of a literary society or other organization of which you have been a member.

2. Describe some system of organized self-government in school.

3. Should there be some kind of organized self-government in a high school? In any other kind of school? Formulate a plan for this school.

4. The idea of the following passage is elaborated in the context, which should be read if possible. Is it true? Interview persons who have traveled in foreign countries or are versed in history:

We perceive that there is less and less social tolerance in a free State where there is great political activity in the mass of the population, and that with the increase of real political liberty, forbearance towards the individual ego is bound to dwindle. There was an infinitely greater originality of mind in the eighteenth century, under an absolutist form of government, than there is to-day. - Treitschke, Politics, Vol. I, pp. 178,179.

5. Elaborate the thought expressed in these passages. The entire article is difficult reading but should be reported on, if possible, by some one who is well grounded in history:

The duplicity of democracy! The phrase can refer only to the fact, which appears to me very like a law, that in any time of democracy of any sort or degree there must be two different and more or less distinct levels of life and interest. These two levels . . . are always in conflict . . . with each other. ... As for duplicity, I am using this term because democracy seems tome to have been quite in the habit of concealing or, if not deliberately concealing, then not always fully and openly facing and appreciating its own real design, its interest in something besides equality, its service of aristocracy of a new sort, on the higher level.

. . . Democratic leveling under the earlier type, natural only when the possibilities have been practically exhausted, must be a condition of rise to the later. In other words, as all that has been said here so far has constantly implied, democracy must mark at once the closing stage of an aristocracy of some lower order, this being an object of its legitimate attack, and the inception of an aristocracy of some higher order, this being the proper object of its ideal endeavor. . . .

. . . Since every democracy by providing a certain equality of opportunity mediates some new aristocracy or since every aristocracy presupposes some democracy, then democracy must be more than just a name for some particular form of government or some particular era; it becomes a name for something that, so to speak, by night when not by day, is present and active in all governments and all eras. Democracy is one of the two ever-present motives of all history; aristocracy being the other.

Democracy is no golden age; but the gold of all ages, which some new aristocracy is ever ready to spend and, spending, to enjoy. - American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 21, pp. 8, 9, 11, 14, A. H. Lloyd.


1. Test the truth of the following statement by your experience with self-governing groups:

. . . Democracy does not respect efficiency, but it soon will have no opportunity to respect it; for efficiency is being destroyed and before.

long will have disappeared altogether. There will soon be no difference between the judge and the suitor, between the layman and the priest, the sick man and the physician. The contempt which is felt for efficiency destroys it little by little. ... - Faguet, The Cult of Incompetence, pp. 170, 171, published by E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.

2. Does any group of teachers enjoy their business meetings? Would they like to have more of the management of the school in their own hands, or do they prefer that the superintendent or president do the managing?

3. How much equality must there be among the members of a group in order to make democracy the natural form of government?

4. Debate this proposition:

Select some organization which represents the entire student body, or all the members of some class or department, which is democratically governed, i.e. is controlled by the entire membership, and carries on some important work such as athletics or publishing a school annual, with the financial responsibility incident thereto. Consider the proposition of broadening the scope of this organization so that it will cover all the activities of its members which involve a joint expense or the cooperative use of capital. It would furnish them with room and board, either in one establishment or in several operated under one management. It would arrange for the laundry work of all. It would sell the clothes, books, and other supplies. It would arrange for all the lectures, concerts, entertainments, and religious services. If any of the members wish to earn money the organization must either give them employment or else find it for them outside and receive the proceeds. The provision in any of these services need not be identical for all, but it must be controlled by the one organization so that there will be no competition.


Adams, The Power of Ideals in American History, pp. 127-151.

American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 20, pp. 433-486,613-628, a symposium, "What is Americanism?" Vol. 21, pp. 1-14, A. H. Lloyd, "The Duplicity of Democracy"; Vol. 23, pp. 763-778, Grabo, "Education for Democratic Leadership "; Vol. 24, pp. 704-714, Gillin, " The Origin of Democracy."

Bagehot, Physics and Politics, pp. 171-185, 200-204.

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, pp. 370-387, socialism.

Bradford, The Lesson of Popular Government, pp. 1-56.

Conklin, Heredity and Environment, pp. 464-471.

** Cooley, Social Organization, pp. 107-205.

Cooley, Social Process, pp. 80-87, 148, 149, 364-370.

Cram, The Nemesis of Mediocrity.

Dewey, Democracy and Education, pp. 94-118.

Dole, The Spirit of Democracy, pp. 62-102.

Educational Review, Vol. 50, pp. 225-245, three articles on education for democracy.

Eliot, American Contributions to Civilization, pp. 21-35, 161-169, 203-233.

Ellis, The Task of Social Hygiene, pp. 381-405, socialism.

Faguet, The Cult of Incompetence, especially pp. 82-91, 172-215. A severe criticism of democracy.

Fite, Individualism, pp. 274-291.

Foerster and Pierson, American Ideals.

Godkin, Unforeseen Tendencies of Democracy, pp. 1-47. Friendly criticism.

Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, pp. 3-10, "Race and Democracy."

Griggs, The Soul of Democracy.

Hadley, Freedom and Responsibility, especially pp. 73-101, 126-149. One of a series of volumes by distinguished publicists under the general title, Yale Lectures on the Responsibilities of Citizenship, all with some bearing on democracy.

Harris, Inequality and Progress, pp. 40-68.

Hayes, British Social Politics, pp. 421-505, curbing the Lords.

Hobhouse, Democracy and Reaction, pp. 167-187, limitations of democracy; pp. 200-244, socialism.

Hollister, Administration of Education in a Democracy, pp. 221-259.

International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 28, pp. 490-514, Ellwood, "Democracy and Social Conditions in the United States."

Jastrow, Character and Temperament, pp. 486-489.

Lecky, Democracy and Liberty, Vol. I, pp. 21-35, 256-261, 370-398. Review by Giddings in Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 11, pp. 716-731.

Lowell, Public Opinion and Popular Government, pp. 3-54.

Popular Science Monthly, Vols. 83-85, C. F. Emerick, a series of articles on "The Struggle for Equality." Vol. 85, pp. 56-67, conclusion.

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, especially for years 1917, 1918, " Democracy."

* Ross, Changing America, pp. 20-31, 163-186.

School and Society, Vol. 3, pp. 247-249, 594-600, faculty participation in college government; pp. 807-816, Bagley, "Some Handicaps to Education in a Democracy."

Spargo, Americanism and Social Democracy. By a prominent American socialist.

Sumner, What the Social Classes Owe Each Other, pp. 28-42.

Tolstoi, War and Peace, Part IX, Chap. XI. Describes a council of war in the Russian Army in 1912; a good example of government without a leader.

Tufts, Our Democracy: Its Origin and Tasks.

Ward, Applied Sociology, pp. 21-23, 95-110.

Weyl, The New Democracy, pp. 209-234, 348-357.

Democracy in Schools and among Children

American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 3, pp. 281-296,433-448, Commons on the George Junior Republic. See Poole's Index and The Reader's Guide for the periodical literature relating to this most interesting example of democracy among children. Vol. 24, pp. 681-691, Lull, "Socializing School Procedure."

Cronson, Pupil Self-Government, describes a scheme in use in New York City.

Dewey, Schools of Tomorrow, pp. 287-316.

Fiske, Boy Life and Self-Government, especially pp. 107-149, 205-219.

Judd, The Evolution of a Democratic School System, pp. 1-36, on the undemocratic system of Prussia.

King, Education for Social Efficiency, pp. 158-176, 246-261.

King, Social Aspects of Education, pp. 291-309. Bibliography.

Monroe, Cyclopedia of Education, "Prefect and the Prefectural System"; "Self-Government in Schools."

National Education Association, Proceedings, 1008, pp. 285-294, two papers and discussion.

Outlook, Vol. no, pp. 706-708, "The Boy Police of New York."

Powell, The Spirit of Democracy. A volume of selections for declamation.

School Citizen's Committee, No. 2 Wall St., New York City, will send literature to anyone desiring it.

Survey, Vol. 33, p. 83, a boy's court in Cleveland.

U. S. Commissioner of Education, Report, 1915, pp. 109-113.

U. S. Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1915, No. 8, "Present Status of the Honor System in Colleges and Universities."