It appears, therefore, that this subject of human nature, though boundless and inscrutable in some respects, may nevertheless be approached by scientific methods. A human being is a bundle of tendencies to activity. There is at present no accepted classification of these tendencies, much as one is needed, but sociology must give special attention to the tendencies which lead man into relations with his kind. The tendency to seek knowledge, and then to use it for self-control, is the distinctively human quality. The slow maturing of the intelligence, and of other qualities as well, makes man the most educable of all animals. Persons differ in the degree and rate of development of their qualities. Methods are now coming into use for testing the degree of intelligence, and of other qualities as well, so that persons can be ranked by standards that are as objective as a yardstick.


1. Give illustrations from another science of the way science (a) starts with certain factors - axioms, hypotheses, forces, materials - without inquiring how they came to exist or what their ultimate nature is, and then (b) traces the processes and combinations which result from these factors.

2. Describe cases of action by children which you regard as instinctive. How many of the instincts in McDougall or Thorndike can you illustrate in this way?

3. Describe some example from your own experience of stimulation and response in school work. Of a stimulus which operated for a long time.

4. Explain the old classification of persons by temperament. See Baldwin's Dictionary and encyclopedias; Jastrow, Character and Temperament, pp. 255-258.

5. Explain Giddings' classification of types of mind. Chapter entitled "Ideals of Nations," in his Democracy and Empire; article entitled "A Provisional Distribution of the Population of the United States into Psychological Classes," in Psychological Review, Vol. 8, p. 337; Descriptive and Historical Sociology, pp. 186-240, especially pp. 236-240.

6. Explain the Binet-Simon tests and report some application of them which you have observed. References below.

7. Write on the blackboard and explain briefly several classifications of types of children: Strayer and Norsworthy, quoted above; O'shea, Social Development and Education, pp. 209-225; Bagley, School Discipline, pp. 216-227.

8. Describe the characteristics of the various stocks of immigrants which have come to the United States: English, Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Italians, Slavs, Hebrews, Magyars, Portuguese, Greeks. Ross, The Old World in the New, pp. 3-194; Towne, Social Problems, pp. 38-58; other books on immigration. What is the chief characteristic of each race which a teacher should be prepared to utilize in children? See Jastrow, Character and Temperament, pp. 393-406, 570-573.

9. Race differences. Kelsey, The Physical Basis of Society, pp. 276-310; Brinton, Races and Peoples, pp. 51-78; Ferguson, The Psychology of the Negro, reviewed in American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 680-685.

10. Gregariousness in animals. Kelsey, The Physical Basis of Society, pp. 65-69; Spencer, Principles of Sociology, Vol. I, pp. 4-8.

11. Give a review of the literature of mental measurements, intelligence tests, and individual or differential psychology. See the latest bibliographies.


1. Name several examples of non-social stimuli. What stimuli the nearest like these would be social? What is the relative importance of the two kinds in school life?

2. Are there marked differences between boys and girls in type of mind? Do the differences grow with age? Are they inborn and not cultivated? Consult Jastrow, Character and Temperament, pp. 366-392.

3. What are the differences between fourth-grade children and fifth-grade?

4. What is the best list or classification of the qualities in human nature which are important for society? If a modified list is agreed on, put it on the blackboard.


American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 23, pp. 107-116, Groves, "Sociology and the Psycho-Analytic Psychology: an Interpretation of the Freudian Hypothesis." See also Vol. 5, pp. 193-219.

Bagehot, Physics and Politics, pp. 185-192.

Bagley, Educational Values, pp. 3-13; The Educative Process, pp. 1-22.

Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology is a good reference for all of the topics discussed in this chapter.

Betts, Social Principles of Education, pp. 133-221.

* Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, pp. 283-315, treat this subject under the title, "Social Forces."

Cams, The Soul of Man, pp. 47-53. Conklin, Heredity and Environment, pp. 3-78.

* Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order: pp. 14-44, suggestion; 45-101, sociability; 232-261, hostility; 262-282, emulation; 283-325, leadership.

Deniker, The Races of Man, pp. 12-122.

Dolbear, Matter, Ether and Motion, pp. 400-402.

Ellwood, Introduction to Social Psychology, pp. 51-78, 188-262.

* Ellwood, Sociology in its Psychological Aspects, pp. 190-277, three chapters; pp. 212-233 especially valuable. Controversial and therefore difficult for beginners.

Gesell, The Normal Child and Primary Education; pp. 8-45, 61-83, especially valuable, though entire volume is pertinent. Groos, The Play of Man. Hall, Adolescence, Vol. II, pp. 363-448. Harris, Inequality and Progress, pp. 14-24. Hayes, Introduction to the Study of Sociology, pp. 200-238, 245-252.

* Hollingworth, Vocational Psychology, pp. 21-108.

* Hollingworth and Poffenberger, Applied Psychology, pp. 1-39. Holmes, The Conservation of the Child, beginning on p. 92, discusses the classification of backward children.

Huntington, Civilization and Climate, pp. n-19, comparison of negroes and whites.

Jastrow, Character and Temperament, the fullest discussion of qualitative differences, though not easy reading. Try, for example, sex differences, pp. 366-375.

Journal of Educational Psychology, from 1912 on, contains many articles on the Binet-Simon tests.

Kirkpatrick, Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 51-63, classification of the instincts.

Lee, Play in Education, pp. 5-25, four chapters on play and growth.

Lusk, The Science of Nutrition, pp. 17-44, on metabolism.

McMurry, Conflicting Principles in Teaching, pp. 223-231.

Mitchell, Schools and Classes for Exceptional Children, pp. 73-96.

Monroe, Cyclopedia of Education: "Adolescence"; "Animal Psychology"; "Child Psychology"; "Culture Epochs"; "Fatigue"; "Growth"; "Habit"; "Imitation"; "Imagination"; "Infancy"; "Instinct"; "Knowledge "; " Motor Processes "; "Physiological Age "; "Play"; "Primitive Peoples"; "Psychological Laboratories"; "Psychology "; "Reaction Experiments"; "Subconscious"; "Suggestion"; "Temperament"; "Characterology"; "Will."

Münsterberg, Psychology and the Teacher, Chapter XXII.

* National Society for the Study of Education, Fifteenth Yearbook, Part I, pp. 149-160, G. M. Whipple, "The Use of Mental Tests in the School," with bibliography; pp. 11-22, B. T. Baldwin, "A Measuring Scale for Physical Growth and Physiological Age."

O'shea, Social Development and Education, pp. 200-225.

Parker, Biology and Social Problems, pp. 1-38.

Parmelee, The Science of Human Behavior: Biological and Psychological Foundations. Controversial. Chapters XI-XV are most pertinent, including the treatment of instinct. Pp. 17, 20, 100, and 121 may be useful to a beginner.

Parsons, Social Rule, elaborates the "will to power."

Partridge, Outline of Individual Study, pp. 227-234, "Pedagogical Aspects of Individuality."

Patrick, The Psychology of Relaxation. General treatment in first and last chapters; others treat respectively of play, laughter, profanity, alcohol, and war.

Ross, Foundations of Sociology, pp. 200-327; Social Psychology, pp. 11-42, on suggestibility.

School and Society, Vol. 3, pp. 280-295, J. T. McManis, "Individual Differences in the Early Grades."

* Strayer and Norsworthy, How to Teach, pp. 13-33, 151-170.

Terman, The Measurement of Intelligence, Part II, pp. 190-348, is a guide for the use of the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon tests designed for fourteen grades of intelligence, from the child three years of age to "superior adult." Bibliography, pp. 340-358.

Thorndike, An Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements, pp. 1-60. Published in 1904; very influential.

Thorndike, Individuality, in Riverside Educational Monographs.

Thorndike, Educational Psychology, Vol. III, pp. 142-388, "Original Differences and Their Causes."

Todd, Theories of Social Progress, pp. 3-9.

Tyler, Growth and Education, pp. 30-37, 104-114.

Wallas, The Great Society, pp. 61-68.

Ward, Pure Sociology, pp. 41-43.