But population is never a homogeneous mass of people. The different race elements or family stocks reproduce in different proportions. Those that increase more rapidly will in time displace those that increase slowly. In this way the Polish race was displacing the German in eastern Prussia. The statistics of several countries show that the Catholic portion of the population has a higher birth rate than the Protestant. The Teutonic element in France and Germany, or, to speak technically and more accurately, the long-headed blonds, the people of the Baltic or Nordic race, do not hold their own with the other race elements; they turn Protestant or free-thinking, get killed off in the wars and revolutions, go to the cities where the birth rate is always lower, and migrate to other countries. The broad-headed Alpines, on the other hand, stick to their farms, remain Catholics, and more often raise large families. In regard to this country, we find that in the cities of New England less than ten per cent of the population of native parentage consists of children under five years of age, while among the population of foreign and mixed parentage the children under five years compose eighteen per cent. Statistics of the graduates of Harvard College show that the average number of children born to each is considerably less than two, which means that their stock is a disappearing element in the population. "I have no wife and don't want any; I have no children and don't want any," was in the questionnaire returned by one of them to his class secretary. Biologically speaking, they belong to the "unfit," however high they may rise professionally or financially.

The democratic movement has been a factor in reducing the fecundity of the capable stocks. The youth may see the possibility of a great career open before him, with the result that he does not want to be tied down by a family, and especially by a large family. Improved facilities for communication, which are both cause and effect of democracy, help to make people too busy to rear children. The daily paper, telephone, automobile, railroad, trolley, excursion boats, mail coming one or more times a day, and moving picture theaters give ordinary middle-class folk as many different things to attend to in a day as formerly came to a king or the head of an army. With these facilities we may do wonders in producing wealth, banishing ignorance and poverty, advancing science, raising our standards in art, suppressing disease, or anything else that seems to us worth while; but if these achievements seem to us more worth while than having children and bringing them up in sufficient number to maintain the population, then we are biologically unfit and our race is on the way to extinction.

. . . Tidal waves of imitation carry the craving for luxuries hitherto looked upon as the prerogative of the rich among millions of people of limited means, and these, in their selfish haste to gratify their new wants, learn to economize in offspring. Here the decencies, there the comforts, yonder the vanities of life compete with the possible child and bar it from existence. - Ross, Changing America. p. 40.

This replacement of one race by another involves a change in human nature, for the new population is likely to have a different natural endowment from the old. Herein perhaps is one reason why there occurs in the history of nations an occasional short period of brilliant achievement followed by ages of barrenness. At some "tide in the affairs of men" opportunities come surging in upon the people in such profusion that all of the capable individuals have their interests drawn away from family life so that they do not reproduce themselves. The brilliant achievements can continue for only a few generations at the most, because the race that produces them comes to an end; a victory is won, but the army that wins it is destroyed.

Eye color is of very great importance in race determination, because all blue, gray or green eyes in the world to-day came originally from the same source, namely, the Nordic race of northern Europe. This light colored eye has appeared nowhere else on earth, and is a specialization of this subspecies of man only. . . .

The Hindu to-day speaks a very ancient form of Aryan language, but there remains not one recognizable trace of the blood of the white conquerors who poured in through the passes of the Northwest. . . . The dim and uncertain traces of Nordic blood in northern India only serve to emphasize the utter swamping of the white man in the burning South.

. . . . . . .

It would appear that in all those parts of Europe outside of its natural habitat, the Nordic blood is on the wane from England to Italy, and that the ancient, acclimated and primitive populations of Alpine and Mediterranean race are subtly reasserting their long lost political power through a high breeding rate and democratic institutions.

. . . Heavy, healthful work in the fields of northern Europe enables the Nordic type to thrive, but the cramped factory and crowded city quickly weed him out, while the little brunet Mediterranean can work a spindle, set type, sell ribbons, or push a clerk's pen far better than the big, clumsy and somewhat heavy Nordic blond, who needs exercise, meat, and air, and cannot live under Ghetto conditions.

Such are the three races, the Alpine, Mediterranean, and Nordic, which enter into the composition of European populations of to-day, and in various combinations comprise the great bulk of white men all over the world. These races vary intellectually and morally just as they do physically. . . .

The Alpine race is always and everywhere a race of peasants, an agricultural and never a maritime race. In fact, they only extend to salt water at the head of the Adriatic. . . .

The coastal and seafaring populations of northern Europe are everywhere Nordic as far as the shores of Spain. . . .

The Nordics are, all over the world, a race of soldiers, sailors, adventurers, and explorers, but above all, of rulers, organizers, and aristocrats in sharp contrast to the essentially peasant and democratic character of the Alpines. . . .

The mental characteristics of the Mediterranean race are well known, and this race, while inferior in bodily stamina to both the Nordic and the Alpine, is probably the superior of both, certainly of the Alpines, in intellectual attainments. In the field of art its superiority to both the other European races is unquestioned. - Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, Revised Edition, pp. 24, 70, 190, 209, 226 - 228. z

We teachers see one hope-giving fact. The children of foreign parentage, even of non-Teutonic stock, adopt the culture of our country; some of them compete on even terms with the native stock. This means that immigration is bringing to us fresh race stocks from which the talented blood has not yet been drained; the enlightenment which has been here matured by one stock is being handed over to another. Can they carry it without committing race suicide? Or is enlightenment a poison which destroys every race that it touches? We must hope that a type of social organization will arise in which wholesome family life will not be inconsistent with progress; or perhaps there will arise a nation - Russian, Jewish, Japanese, or some other - which has the family instincts so well balanced that it can rear children and be enlightened at the same time!

It will next be useful to see how natural selection applies to the other two elements of society, namely, location and communication.