1. The principle of natural selection as stated by its discoverer. Darwin, Origin of Species, Chapters III and IV.

2. Darwin's life and influence. Poulton, Darwin and His Theory, pp. 42-167; Huxley, Life and Letters, Vol. I, pp. 178-204.

3. Anticipations of Darwinism. Locy, Biology and Its Makers, pp. 345-433; Osborn, From the Greeks to Darwin; Spencer, Essays, Vol. I, pp. 1-7.

4. Malthusianism. Giddings, Elements of Sociology, pp. 304-307; Bullock, Readings in Economics, pp. 275-286, Malthus; Malthus, Essay, on Population. See articles about Malthus.

5. Sexual selection. Carver, Sociology and Social Progress, pp. 276-391, Darwin; ibid., pp. 674, 675, Ward; Ward, Pure Sociology, pp. 323-332, 460-464.

6. Compare the native born population with the foreign born and the colored races as to the proportion between the number of children and the number of women. Census.

7. What writers have most developed the view that society is an arena of conflict? Ross, Foundations of Sociology, pp. 272-200.

8. Give Cooley's thought about the persistence of struggle. Social Organization, pp. 199-201, 239, 240. Compare, Ellis, Task of Social Hygiene, pp. 311-348.

9. Give an example of some school organization which was unable to survive. Analyze the conditions which made it unfit.

10. The prospect for America. Ross, Foundations of Sociology, pp. 386-395; Ross, The Old World in the New, pp. 282-304.


1. Give examples of natural selection in personal development: food, clothing, recreations, friendships, etc.

2. In the development of a teacher's methods.

3. In the development of the industries carried on in some locality.

4. From cases you have known illustrate natural selection as applied to the choosing of a vocation. What becomes of the unfit person?

5. Does free public education promote or hinder natural selection? How does the vocationalizing of education affect this question?

6. It is often said that there are too many organizations in a school, too many outside activities that appeal to the student, too many women's clubs in the town, too many books and papers, too many fads. From the standpoint of natural selection what would the outlook be if there were not too many? What is the remedy?

7. Is it true, as Sumner says, that "nothing but might has ever made right"? See Folkways, pp. 64-66. Is it "right" to be thoughtful of others? See Jordan and Kellogg, Evolution and Animal Life, pp. 380-397.


American Journal of Sociology: Vol. 5, pp. 761-777, Ross, "The Genesis of Ethical Elements"; Vol. 8, pp. 280-335, Warming, survival of the Danes against Prussian repression in North Sleswic; ibid., pp. 398-411, Elkin, decrease of the Hawaiian people; Vol. 12, pp. 695-716, Wells, "Social Darwinism"; Vol. 13, pp. 280-299, Ward, "Social and Biological Struggles"; ibid., pp. 402-409, Davenport,"Hereditary Crime"; ibid.,pp. 628-648, Carver," The Basis of Social Conflicts"; ibid., 640-660, Keasby, competition; Vol. 14, pp. 352-370, Collier, "Natural Selection in Sociology" 5 Vol. 20, pp. 504-531, Schmoller, class conflicts; Vol. 22, pp. 306-311, Ross, growth of language by natural selection.

American Sociological Society, Publications, Vol. 1, pp. 117-138, Wells; Vol. 2, especially pp. 33-44, Keasby, and 166-192, Giddings; Vol. 5, pp. 241-256, Vincent, "Rivalry of Social Groups."

Bagehot, Physics and Politics, pp. 41-80.

Castle, Genetics and Eugenics, pp. 7-17.

Conklin, Heredity and Environment, pp. 352-363.

Conn, Social Heredity and Social Evolution, pp. 223-278, two chapters.

Ellwood, Sociology and Modern Social Problems, pp. 27-50.

Fairbanks, Introduction to Sociology, pp. 250-293.

Galton, Hereditary Genius, pp. 325-348, edition of 1892.

Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, Revised Edition, pp. 46-55, 179-212.

Guyer, Being Well-Born, pp. 228-288, multiplication of defectives.

Hayes, Introduction to the Study of Sociology, pp. 485-489, 648-651; 541-550, evolution of morality.

Humphrey, Mankind, pp. 31-77.

Jewett, The Next Generation, pp. 26-71.

Jordan and Kellogg, Evolution and Animal Life, pp. 57-79; 426-450, instincts.

* Keller, Societal Evolution, pp. 53-89; 164-207, counter selection; 250-305, adaptation.

* Kelsey, The Physical Basis of Society, pp. 140-190, 331-352. Nearing, Woman and Social Progress, pp. 147-170. Parker, Biology and Social Problems, pp. 98-125.

Popenoe and Johnson, Applied Eugenics, Chapters VI and IX.

Ross, Changing America, pp. 32-48, 137-162.

Ross, Foundations of Sociology, pp. 327-385.

Small, General Sociology, pp. 183-394.

Spencer, Essays, Vol. I, pp. 1-7, "The Development Hypothesis." This essay, published in 1852, contains the germ of Spencer's later writings. It is interesting as a statement of the theory of evolution before any of Darwin's work on that subject had been published.

Sumner, Folkways, especially pp. 31-77.

Todd, Theories of Social Progress, pp. 239-256.