1. Does the enlightenment of the individual make him more mindful of the general welfare? Ross, Social Control, pp. 291-303.

2. The relation between freedom and order. Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order, pp. 392-404; Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I, Chapters XIII, XIV.

3. The disorganization of higher education. Cooley, Social Organization, pp. 386-392; Gayley, Idols of Education.

4. Are we developing a new type of culture? If so what are the elements of it? Hanus, Educational Aims and Values,pp. 3-138; Eliot, Educational Reform, pp. 80-122, 275-300; Baker, Education and Life, pp. 69-79; Dewey, School and Society, pp. 77-110; Vincent, Social Mind and Education, pp. 114-146; Super, A Liberal Education.

5. The virtues of stupidity. Why do we distrust the clever? Carver, Social Progress, pp. 501, 502, Bagehot.

6. Read aloud to the class the italicized passage in Bagley, School Discipline, p. 63. Intersperse explanations in your own words.

7. Study the directory of social agencies in The Survey; the list of organizations and institutions in a city directory; the "Educational Directory," published annually as a bulletin by the Bureau of Education. Classify the organizations; count or estimate the number of each kind.

8. Explain in some detail how the work of schools can be measured and standardized. Monroe, De Voss, and Kelly, Educational Tests and Measurements, pp. 1-15, 241-302. The six chapters intervening between these two selections treat respectively of arithmetic, reading, spelling, handwriting, language, and high school subjects; bibliographies.


1. Give an example of outworn formalism in this school; in this class. Give examples of form or symbolism that are fit and useful. Give examples of disorganization.

2. If you should become a teacher in a high school what kind of student organization would you try to start or ally yourself with?

3. Cooley says that successful persons are likely to become "insti-tutionized," Social Organization, p. 140. What characteristics are developed by long service in teaching? Should teachers and principals try to counteract this tendency? If so, how?

4. Distinguish "standard tests" from "intelligence tests."

5. Compare these two selections. Which is nearer the truth? - With the progress of civilization, not only races, but also the individuals of each race - those at least of the superior races - tend to become more and more differentiated. The result of modern civilization clashing with our dreams of equality, is not to render men more and more equal intellectually, but, on the contrary, more and more different. - Le Bon, The Psychology of Peoples, p. 40.

... If the social good were the supreme end, as it is in a colony of ants or bees, the greatest differentiation of individuals for particular kinds of service would be desirable. There should be a hereditary class of laborers, of business men, of scholars, of artists, etc., and for the improvement of each class there should be inbreeding in that class. ... In other countries and ages the development of hereditary classes and castes in human society has been tried, and survivals of it persist to this day, but they are only vestigial remnants of an old order. . . .

The whole development of modern society is in the direction of racial solidarity and away from hereditary classes. . . . The modern ideal individual is not the highly specialized unit in the social organism, as in the case of social insects, but rather the most general all round type of individual, the man who can when conditions demand combine within himself the functions of the laborer, business man, soldier and scholar. . . - Conklin, Heredity and Environment, pp. 429, 430.


American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 8, pp. 8-20, Simmel; Vol. 13, pp. 523-540, A. H. Lloyd, "The Institution and Some of Its Original Sins"; Vol. 21, pp. 30-44, Langerock, "Professionalism: a Study in Professional Deformation"; Vol. 23, pp. 250-368, Kocourek, "The Nature of Interests and Their Classification"; Vol. 24, pp. 130-158, Ross, " The Diseases of Social Structures "; pp. 652-671, " Socialization." The first and the fourth of these articles are difficult.

Betts, Social Principles of Education, pp. 5-31, 55-58.

Coffin, The Socialized Conscience, pp. 55 - 69.

Conn, Social Heredity and Social Evolution, pp. 178-201.

* Cooley, Social Organization, pp. 313-355.

Dewey and Tufts, Ethics, pp. 428-439.

Educational Review, Vol. 43, pp. 168-191, R. C. Hill, "Secret Societies in High Schools."

Ellwood, Introduction to Social Psychology, pp. 313-328.

Fairbanks, Introduction to Sociology, pp. 203-216.

Ferris, Girls' Clubs, pp. 355 - 364, bibliography.

Gesell, The Normal Child in Primary Education, pp. 296-309, emphasizes the importance of preserving humor and spontaneity.

Giddings, Descriptive and Historical Sociology, pp. 429-432.

Giddings, Elements of Sociology, pp. 175-178, 204-216.

Gillette, Vocational Education, pp. 52 - 74.

Hayes, Introduction to the Study of Sociology, pp. 405-410, 431-445.

Kelsey, The Physical Basis of Society, pp. 353-371.

McMurry, Conflicting Principles in Teaching, pp. 231-236, "The Individual and the Social Whole."

Monroe, Cyclopedia of Education. Under the names of the various countries and states are given accounts of their respective systems of education.

Monroe, De Voss, and Kelly, Educational Tests and Measurements, pp. 1-15, 241-302. The remainder of the volume treats of tests for particular branches of study.

National Society for the Study of Education, Fifteenth Yearbook,

Part I, "Standards and Tests for the Measurement of the Efficiency of Schools and School Systems"; pp. 23-40, Buckingham, "Notes on the Derivation of Scales in School Subjects, with Special Application to Arithmetic"; pp. 52-148, eleven chapters.

Robbins, The School as a Social Institution, especially pp. 34-37.

Ross, Social Control, pp. 411-431.

School and Society, Vol. 3, pp. 462-467, G. H. Albright, "How Teachers Mark"; Vol. 4, pp. 388-392, Hartman, "Grading Systems Again."

Scott, Social Education, pp. 1-22.

Starch, Educational Measurements, pp. 3-19, 194-197. Intervening portion on measurements for different studies.

For boys' clubs and gangs, see references at the close of Chapter V (Primary Groups And Congenial Groups).