The topics treated in this chapter may seem disconnected. If so, it is because this thing which we call society is essentially heterogeneous. The population of the United States is split up into strata, and all of us who have to do with the maintenance of our social organization, whether it be managing a national bureau or managing a district school, should occasionally see the situation as it is. Of course the segregation is never complete. There are criminals and imbeciles living in luxurious homes; there are rich families and energetic individuals living in the slums. But these are exceptional cases - too few to reverse the current of the social mind in which they are submerged.

If a final word needs to be said, can it be other than that education should foster the open classes based on vocation, but should bring all classes as near to a common social mind as possible? Then let the school train every boy and girl to be useful, to regard idleness as a mark of inferiority. Let each strive for the highest excellence possible within his occupation, but refrain from any assumption of superiority over other useful occupations. That is your job, this is mine. I do not humiliate myself when I yield precedence to you in your field: but if you do not yield to me in mine you challenge my proficiency and I must fight for my place in the world, or else join the ranks of the precariously employed.


1. What are the conditions which foster or dispel class feeling? Cooley, Social Organization, Chapters XIX, XX, XXVII.

2. Describe some example you have observed of caste in school. O'shea, Social Development of Education, pp. 11-27, 425-442.

3. Slavery sometimes a useful institution. Fairbanks, Introduction to Sociology, p. 165; Ward, Pure Sociology, pp. 267-270; Sumner, Folkways, p. 262; Dealey, Sociology, pp. 101, 292; American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 13, pp. 513-522.

4. The responsibility of the schools for crime and poverty. Cooley, Social Organization, pp. 200-300; Gillette, Vocational Education, pp. 120-160; Ellwood, Sociology and Modern Social Problems, pp. 354-367.

5. Degeneracy. Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order, pp. 372-391; American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 4, pp. 326-334, 463-473; Nordau, Degeneration.

6. The value of geniuses; means of discovering and developing them. Ross, Social Control, pp. 350-359; Gillette, Vocational Education, pp. 100-103; Mallock, Aristocracy and Evolution, pp. 118-139; Ward, Applied Sociology, pp. 113-281; The Child in the City, pp. 203-212, D. P. MacMillan.

7. Explain the phrase, noblesse oblige. How does it apply to the senior class in school? to the educated person in a community? to persons possessing wealth?

8. Review these books: Goddard, The Kallikak Family; Dugdale, The Jukes; Winship, The Edwards Family.

9. Elimination and retardation in schools. Strayer and Thorndike, Educational Administration, pp. 3-73, eight sections.

10. Teachers as a class. Ibid., pp. 77-146, five sections; Cubberley, Rural Life and Education, pp. 283-305.


1. Is there evidence of caste in the table on p. 16 showing the nationality of teachers?

2. How far is class consciousness desirable? When should it be repressed?

3. Describe some community you have known where teachers are recognized as the elite.

4. Describe some community where teachers are regarded as an inferior class. What would you do if you were a principal or superintendent in such a community?

5. What is the wholesome way for persons to regard themselves who find that they are not wanted in some organization or social circle to which they would like to belong?

6. Are some school fraternities and societies examples of caste? Should fraternities and sororities be prohibited in high schools? In normal schools?

7. Should races or nationalities be recognized among the pupils of a school? Note the observance of special days; also adaptations of geography, history, and literature.


The subject of this chapter has been even more voluminously treated than that of the preceding. There is a prodigious literature dealing with the practical applications of it.

American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 19, pp. 592-648, 761-791, six articles on race solidarity and prejudice; Vol. 22, pp. 461-476, 594-608, 749-760; Vol. 23, pp. 350-358, 67-82, Ross, five articles on "Class and Caste."

Blackmar and Gillin, Outlines of Sociology, pp. 390-407, 425-434.

Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1912, No. 19, Burritt, "Professional Distribution of College and University Graduates."

Child in the City, The, Part IV, pp. 203-269, six chapters by different authors on "Special Groups of Children."

Coffman, Social Composition of the Teaching Population.

* Cooley, Social Organization, pp. 200-309.

Cooley, Social Process, pp. 78-87, 153-168, 268-280.

Dealey, Sociology, pp. 170-183.

Dewey, Schools of Tomorrow, pp. 230-240.

Groszmann, The Exceptional Child.

Hanus, Beginnings in Industrial Education, pp. 169-199, "The Country Schoolmaster in Bavaria."

Hayes, Introduction to the Study of Sociology, pp. 248-254, 590-610.

Jastrow, Character and Temperament, pp. 454-462, 552.

Jessup, The Teaching Staff, pp. 53-114.

King, Social Aspects of Education, pp. 230-235.

National Conference of Social Work, formerly National Conference of Corrections and Charities, Proceedings, annual volumes a mine of information.

Patten, The New Basis of Civilization, pp. 67-91.

Perry, The Profession of the Teacher, pp. 52-68.

Richmond, Social Diagnosis, treats of the case method of studying social classes; pp. 221-234, "Schools as Sources."

Ross, Changing America, pp. 3-19, "The Outlook for Plain Folk"; 212-236, "The Middle West: Society and Culture."

School and Society, Vol. 3, pp. 001-007, Pittenger, "Distribution of High School Graduates."