Figs. 13, 12.

Chart VI., plotted from Figs. 12 and 13.

In rowing, the back takes the greatest portion of the strain, unless the friction of the seat is excessive, in which case a double duty is imposed upon the flexors of the legs. A long stroke being desirable, the advantage of a long body, if sufficiently broad and deep to furnish extensive attachments for the rowing muscles, becomes apparent, while the short thigh and upper arm give power to the muscles that are working these shortened levers from the body. It is only when the stroke is taken principally by the arms or legs that the great length of thigh and upper arm, as compared with the lower leg and forearm, is of service; when otherwise, a greater reach is obtained, without losing any mechanical advantage. These facts are better illustrated in Han-Ian, the professional oarsman, than in the men we are now considering. His total height entitles him to a place in the sixty-five per cent class, and his sitting height in the ninety per cent class, while the height of the knee remains with the thirty, and the pubic arch with the twenty-five per cent class, the most surprising difference being in the relative length of the upper arm and the forearm. Eighty per cent of all those examined surpassed this man in length of upper arm, and 6 months; weight, 166 lbs.; height, 5 feet, 8.1 inches. One of Harvard's pitchers on the 'Varsity nine for '87, and half-back on the '86 'Varsity foot-ball eleven; he is second strongest man at Harvard, with a record of 1141.9 for total strength, and has had six years' training in college athletics.

Physical Characteristics Of The Athlete 41

Figure 14.

Figure 14. - B------, Harvard Law School; age, 22 years.

Physical Characteristics Of The Athlete 42

Figure 15, a.

Figure 15,0 and b. - P------, Harvard, '87; age, 22 years; weight, 164 1/2 lbs.; height, 5 feet, 10.5 inches. Captain of '87 'Varsity Lacrosse team, and full-back of 'Varsity foot-ball eleven for '86; has had, at least, four years of athletic training.

only twenty-five per cent surpassed him in length of forearm. In view of Han-lan's style of rowing, these measurements are suggestive.

Large bones, which usually accompany large muscles, may result from slow, heavy work, and are indispensable to him who handles great weights. If the bones have large, prominent processes for the attachment of muscles, or the muscles have short tendons and long insertions, great strength is the usual result.

Perhaps no one thing is more important to a successful oarsman than good lung-capacity. In order to relieve the heart and lungs of the embarrassment at first accompanying severe exertion, it is necessary to enlarge the chest and increase its mobility, especially in the region of the eighth, ninth, and tenth ribs. This can be accomplished by the use of light chest-weights, dumb-bells, and running exercises. I am prepared to maintain, also, that rowing, with the use of the sliding-seat, is one of the best exercises for enlarging the chest, and I believe that conclusions of Maclaren and others to the contrary were formed before the introduction of the sliding-seat, as the evidence is indisputable that the girth of the chest is greatly increased by rowing. The use of the slid-ing-seat brings more muscles into action: there is, in consequence, an increased demand for oxygen, which necessitates a larger chest-cavity; and the effort of nature, by aid of the muscles used in natural and forced respiration, is to produce this result. Nearly all the muscles of the chest, abdomen, and back assist respiration when the exercise is violent and prolonged. Considering that these accessory muscles are contracted and relaxed at least one thousand times a day during a season of vigorous training, we ought to get some result in the shape of increased volume of muscle and enlarged chest-capacity. This would naturally account for the increased girth of chest from rowing.

Physical Characteristics Of The Athlete 43

Figure 15, b. (See description, page 89.)

The physical proportions of the two wrestlers, Figs. 12 and 13 (page 83), as shown by the tracings in Chart VI. (page 86), are distinguished from those just described in proportional shortness of stature and in great volume of muscle. In one case the lengths of the arms and legs are very short for the length of the body. In both cases the depth of chest and abdomen is proportionately small, but the width of the waist corresponds more nearly to the other measurements. In the chart-tracings of Fig. 12 we have the nearest approach to symmetry in the girth of body and limbs that has thus far been recorded.

The group of tracings in Chart VII. (page 102), representing Figs. 14, 15, a, b, and 16, a, b, c (pages 88 - 99), are in some respects unique. Here we have for the first time some approach to symmetry in the relative heights of different parts of the body. There is no marked divergence in the points indicating the relative length of trunk and lower limbs. In two cases none of the measurements fall below the normal or fifty per cent line, and in one case only thirty per cent of them fall below the eighty per cent line. In Fig. 14 the line of symmetry is very nearly approached in the chest, waist, hips, thighs, and knees. The upper arm, elbow, and forearm, also, are nearly symmetrical, although a trifle large for the lower extremities. The depth of chest and abdomen is a little low, and the lung-capacity is deficient; but nearly all the strength-tests are in the region of the maximum.

Fig. 16, a, b, c, is pleasing; and the harmonic poise and beautiful outlines it illustrates serve to show, also, that a man may depart from the normal standard in several parts and yet retain all the appearance of grace and symmetry. In girth of neck this man approaches within two and one-half per cent of the maximum, while in length of upper arm he falls to within two and a half per cent of the minimum. The waist and neck are very broad for the hips and shoulders, and the instep is apparently low, as the result, probably, of a high arch and narrow foot. In this, as in the preceding figure, the depth of chest is somewhat low, and the lung-capacity at the normal. The strength-tests would probably have exceeded the muscle measurements, owing to the shortness of the arms and legs, and have reached the region of the maximum.