These two men are base-ball players of some prominence. As a base-ball pitcher offers the batters from two hundred to three hundred balls a game, superior development of the right arm and shoulder is the natural result, although the gymnasium training counteracts in a measure this one-sided tendency. Any one familiar with the modern style of delivering the ball, the number of times the pitcher turns around to perplex the batter, or watch the bases, will know that the neck and waist are called upon for a large share of work, and must be developed correspondingly. Where the arms are short, the muscles around the waist and body are used more in pitching. As the leverage in the former case is more favorable than in the latter, this advantage should naturally add to the endurance of the pitcher so favored. In striking, the muscles of the arms, chest, abdomen, and back are brought more or less vigorously into action. In running bases, the legs and arms do the work, as in "sprinting;" but the lungs are not brought into full play, as in running long distances, and the lung-capacity is but slightly increased. The other developments peculiar to base-ball players will, of course, depend largely upon the positions they occupy.

In Fig. 15, a, b, we have a typical lacrosse-player. In this game the muscles of the arms, chest, back, abdomen, and legs are called upon; and the heart and lungs are often kept in a state of prolonged activity. As a means of general development, few games can be compared with lacrosse. It has many of the advantages of football, without its element of danger, although the method of using the stick which has come into practice within the last few years threatens to deprive lacrosse of this distinction. In the figure under consideration, we see the result of a harmonious development in all directions. No one point stands out prominently. The extent of divergence on the chart is limited to a very few lines, and the approach to symmetry is apparent. The length measurements of the upper arm and forearm fall exactly on the normal line, and both are perfectly symmetrical as related to each other and to the right and left sides. When compared with other parts of the body, however, it will be seen that the arms are short, illustrating a point in connection with the chart that may be of interest. In the original table, the fifty per cent line represents the value of the measurements for each part at which the greatest number of observations occurred. For example, if out of any given number of men, collected from all parts of the globe, the largest group was 5 feet 5 1/4 inches in height, this measurement would naturally fall upon the central line of a chart composed of these records, and so would the measurements of the other parts common to the greatest number. If any one man could be found, all of whose measurements corresponded to those on the central line in the table, he would be termed a mean or typical man; i.e., he would represent the type most common to the human race.*

Physical Characteristics Of The Athlete 44

Figure 16, a.

Figure 16, a, b, and c. - S------, Yale, '88; age, 24 years, 9 months; weight, 149 lbs.; height, 5 feet, 5.4 inches. Has pitched on the Vale base-ball nine for two years, and had considerable experience in ball-playing before entering college.

* "The conclusions arrived at up to the present time, by the most eminent investigators in this particular branch of science (anthropometry), may be summarily stated as follows: -

The height, weight, and physical proportions of such a man are those that all men who have attained their growth would possess but for the influence of climate, heredity, nurture, and a multitude of accidental causes that have assisted or interfered with nature's plan of development. These causes, operating on a grand scale, have given us the forms and proportions that characterize different races.

Physical Characteristics Of The Athlete 45

Figure 16, b. (See description, page 95.)

"I. There is a perfect form or type of man, and the tendency of the race is to attain this type.

"2. The order of growth is regular toward this type.

"3. The variations from this type follow a definite law, the law of accidental causes.

"4. The line formed by these variations, when arranged in groups, receding on either side of their mean, is the curve well known to mathematicians as the binomial; it was first applied by Newton and Pascal to questions of astronomy and physics, but it is applicable to all the qualities of man which can be represented by numbers.

"5. The more numerous the data obtained by actual measurements, supposing them to be made with reasonable care and without bias, the more nearly accurate is the mean result, and the more closely does it correspond with that obtained by calculation." - Statistics, Medical and Anthropological, of the Provost-Marshal-General's Bureau, Washington, D.C.

We see their influence also upon people of the same race, family, and kindred. It is manifest that a chart made up from measurements of ten thousand African Bushmen, whose average height is 4 feet 4.78 inches, would have a different mean from a chart composed of the measurements of the same number of Englishmen or Americans, whose average height is nearer 5 feet 7! inches. For the same reason a chart composed of the measurements of a picked class in the community would represent a higher mean than a chart made up from a class less favorably situated.

Now, the same laws that govern the growth and development of the body in races and different classes in the community are just as apparent in the development of the class itself. The general chart at present under consideration was made up largely from college students, as stated in the preceding article. There were about as many men above the mean as below it in the measurements of every part taken. In some individual cases all the measurements were above the mean, in other cases all were below, while others ranged extensively in both directions. To assume that the man whose measurements all come on the mean normal or typical line represents the ideal type, i.e., the type to pattern after, is to assume that the standing taken by the average man of a class is more worthy of imitation than that taken by those nearer the top. If this were true, we should be obliged to admit that the lengths of the upper arm and forearm as shown in Chart VII. to come exactly on the mean line were the only normal proportions exhibited by this man, and that all the others had exceeded the proper standard. This is not the case. The reverse, however, is true. With a good inheritance to