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The Principles And Practice Of Modern House-Construction | by G. Lister Sutcliffe



Including water-supply and fittings sanitary fittings and plumbing - drainage and sewage disposal - warming ventilation - lighting - sanitary aspects of furniture and decoration - climate and situation stables-sanitary law, etc.

TitleThe Principles And Practice Of Modern House-Construction
AuthorG. Lister Sutcliffe
PublisherBlackie & Son Ltd
Year1900
Copyright1900, Blackie & Son Ltd
AmazonHow Your House Works: A Visual Guide to Understanding & Maintaining Your Home

Edited By G. Lister Sutcliffe, Architect Associate Or The Royal Institute Of British Architects, Member Of The Sanitart Institute, Author Of "Concrete: Its Nature And Uses", Etc

Written By

F. W. Andrewes, M.D., F.R.C.P., D.P.H

A. Wynter Blyth, M.R.C.S. F.I C

H. Percy Boulnois, M.Inst.C.E. F San.1.

E. A. Claremont, M.I.E.E. M.I.M.E

Henry Clay, R.I.Pl

E. R. Dolby, A.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M .E

William Henman. F.R.I.B.A.

H. Josse Johnson, M.B., D.P.H.

Prof. Robert Kerr. F.R.I B.A.

Henry Law. M. Inst. C.E. F.San.I

F. W. Lock Wood. F.Ls.E

J. Murray Somerville

W. Spinks, A.M.Inst C.E. Pr.I .S.E.

G. Lister Sutcliffe, A.R.I.B.A, M .San.I

William H. Wells

E. F. Willouohby. M D. D.P.H.

Keith D. Young. F.R.I.B.A.

Illustrated By Above 100 Figures In The Text And A Series Of Separately-Printed Plates

-Preface
The proper construction of houses is a matter of vital interest to every individual and to the community at large. Houses badly-designed and jerry-built are sure and costly sources of discomfort, dise...
-List Of Sections And Authors
General Introduction,............F. W. ANDREWES, M.D, F.RCP, D.P.H. Section L Plan.........................Prop. ROBERT KERR, F.R.I.B.A. II. Construction,..................G. LISTER SUTCLIFF...
-Prefatory Note. Divisional - Vol. I
Houses are built to live in, and not to look on, as the philosopher Bacon pithily says, and his aphorism may fitly he appropriated as the motto of the present work. Beauty, symmetry, the fair things...
-General Introduction
Chapter I. Historical It is a law of nature that those races of animals which fail to adapt themselves to their surroundings are doomed to perish. Man, however, has learned to adapt his surroundings ...
-Sanitary Improvements Which Have Been Effected
It is thus abundantly evident that there has been a steadily increasing activity in the progress of sanitary legislation. Let us now consider what principles have become recognized, and what arc the c...
-Sanitary Improvements Still Required
1. Purification Of Rivers Although so much has been already attained in the way of sanitary improvement, much remains to be done, and is, indeed, already being attempted. It may be admitted that the ...
-Effect Of Sanitary Improvements On Death-Rate
If polluted water, vitiated air. bad drains, damp sites, overcrowding and dirt, be really important factors in the causation of disease, then it should be demonstrable that the improvements in these m...
-Chapter II. The Production Of Disease By Insanitary Conditions
In order that the reader should grasp the reasons for the various principles which are to be inculcated in this work, it is essential that the effects of insanitary conditions in producing disease sho...
-Diseases Due To Impure Air
Numerous diseases arise from the breathing of impure air. Air may be vitiated by respiration or by the products of combustion; it may contain irritating mechanical particles or noxious gases and vapou...
-Diseases Due To Cold And Damp In Houses
These conditions may be considered together, for as factors in the causation of disease they usually go hand in hand. A damp house is commonly a cold one, and a cold house is liable to be a damp one, ...
-Diseases Due To Dirt And Overcrowding
Overcrowding must le regarded from two points of view. The individual requires a certain amount of airspace for the due preservation of his health. Therefore, too many people must not be crowded i...
-Chapter III. Disinfection
In spite of the care which may have been spent on the sanitary condition of a house, infectious disease may at times be imported into it from outside. Certain considerations then arise which are not o...
-Chapter IV. The Disposal Of Refuse
House-refuse consists of ashes, and the remains of food, both animal and vegetable, of the waste water from sinks and baths, and of human and animal excreta, liquid and solid. Refuse food should be f...
-Chapter V. General Principles
An attempt has been made in this introductory section to enunciate the principles which underlie the construction of healthy houses, to set forth the reasons which lead up to them, and the results whi...
-Chapter I. Apartment Planning - General Considerations
Comfort. - In no other country have the amenities of home-life been so well developed in respect of the plan of the dwelling as in the British Islands. This is partly due to the climate, and partly to...
-Apartment Planning - General Considerations. Continued
Fig. 1. - Site Arrangement: Suburban Type. Fig .2 - AspectOompaM. Light And Air This phrase is in very common use in England with a somewhat special meaning, owing to the law of ancient lights...
-Chapter II. Living-Rooms, Bedrooms, And Thoroughfares
Thoroughfares The work of planning a house as a whole may almost be said to begin with laying out such a framework of thoroughfares - that is to say, entrances, passages, and staircases - as shall co...
-Living-Rooms
In a house suitable for an unpretentious family of the middle class, the primary living-rooms arc a dining-room for meals, a drawing-room for the ladies, and a supplementary apartment for the master o...
-Bedrooms
Every person who has experienced the satisfaction of occupying a thoroughly comfortable bedroom must have seen how much its proper arrangement, whether as regards the planning of the room itself or th...
-Chapter III. Domestic Offices And Supplementaries
One characteristic of a well-planned house is that the family department and the servants' department are distinctly separated. It is not, as some might suppose, that allowance has to be made for clas...
-Domestic Offices And Supplementaries. Continued
The housekeepers room in large establishments is the sitting-room and business-room of the housekeeper, and the dining-room of the upper servants; the lady also is enabled to give her directions there...
-Chapter IV. Miscellaneous Houses
Cottages The simple home of the humble family need not be carelessly planned. Even a two-room cabin whose doors, windows, and fireplaces are all in proper relation to each other, is quite a different...
-Chapter I. Construction. The Problem Stated And Discussed
The healthfulness of a house depends to some extent on the geological formation on which it is built, its position and aspect, the nature of the water-supply, the density of the population around it, ...
-1. Dryness
Damp may enter a house from above, below, and from all sides. It may conic through the foundations, floors, walls, roof, windows. It may be the result of ground-moisture or of moisture in the air, or ...
-2. Equable Temperature
A lamp house is colder than a dry house, but a dry house is not necessarily f equable temperature. An iron building may be proof against the ingress of tenial moisture, but it wil...
-3. Cleanliness
Cleanliness, we are told, is akin to godliness, and dirt may be called a child of the evil one. The dust and smoke of our towns are responsible for more deaths than war. It is well known that dusty oc...
-4. Light
'Let there be light' is said to have been the first command, and truly no command should ever stand before it or bar its way. Pure light purifies, destroys the organic poisons of spreading diseases, ...
-5. Airiness
To talk of a house being airy almost sends a shiver through some people, airiness being supposed to be synonymous with coldness and draughtiness. This is certainly not the meaning of the word which it...
-6. Fire-Resistance
In towns certain precautions against conflagrations are now invariably taken, but in the country, where the chances of extinguishing a fire are much less than in towns, little or nothing is attempted....
-Chapter II. Ground-Works
The nature of building-sites from a medical point of view will be considered in a subsequent section. The architect's point of view may now be taken, and the first observation which the architect make...
-1. Excavation And Filling
The practical details of excavation need not be discussed. Suffice it to say that all humus and vegetation ought to be removed from building-sites. This is an easy matter in many districts, where the ...
-2. Subsoil-Drainage
The greatest difficulty with which an architect has to contend in the groundworks of a building is that of the ground-water in low-lying lands. Springs on hillsides are easily dealt with, but the wate...
-3. Foundations
It is impossible to lay down general rules for the safe bearing-power of different kinds of ground. Each site must be judged by itself, but, speaking roughly, it may be said that alluvial soil, or qui...
-4. Ground-Layers
The pores of the ground are filled with water or air. The water may be reduced by drainage, but the ground-air will be increased by it. Sandy soils may contain air to the extent of 40 or even 50 per c...
-5. Basement Walls
Damp and ground-air may not only rise through the floor of a house; they may find entrance through the basement walls. It is of little use covering the-site with an impervious layer of asphalt if the ...
-5. Basement Walls. Continued
Fig. 25 - Hollow Basement Wall. A. lower stoneware ventilating .damp own, B. upper stoneware ventilating damp-course,. cc, bonding blocks. Fig: 26. - Wall with Cavity filled with Artificial Asph...
-6. Damp-Courses
The word damp-course is usually applied to a horizontal damp-resisting course forming part of the structure of a wall. The building-regulations of most large towns and cities require such a course t...
-Chapter III. External Walls
The walls of houses are designed for a twofold purpose, namely, protection and support, or, to put it more fully, to protect the occupants and contents of the houses from those external influences whi...
-1. Stone
Stone is first of building-materials in order and in rank. But there are many varieties and many qualities, from green jasper and peach-blossom marble to such a stone as the spiteful bishop dreaded fo...
-Stone Walls
Building-stones, whether of sandstone, limestone, or granite, are named according to their shape and finish. The principal classes are three, namely, rubble, squared rubble, and ashlar, but each of th...
-Stone-And-Brick Walls
Even in the heart of stone-districts bricks are now generally used for all internal walls, and for all but the facing of external walls. Their cheapness, and the facility with which they can be laid, ...
-2. Bricks
The bricks of which we have hitherto been speaking have been used for internal work alone, and in almost every locality bricks sufficiently good for this purpose are made. The strength of common brick...
-2. Bricks. Part 2
Table I. Weight, Absorption, And Hardness Of Various Bricks No. Description of Brick. Locality Where Mads. DlMENSIONS. Dry Weight. Absorption of Water Per Cent Of Dry Weigh...
-2. Bricks. Part 3
Bricks with cracked or discoloured faces, or chipped edges, are sold as seconds or thirds, the perfect bricks being known as best. Enamelled bricks of several colours can now be obtained, - c...
-Brick Walls
The art of bricklaying now demands notice. To ensure a strong wall, the bricks must be so laid that those in one course break joint with those in the course below; in other words, the bricks must be t...
-3. Terra-Cotta
Terra-cotta is a superior kind of brickwork, but possessing in the main the same general characteristics. It is burnt from carefully selected and prepared clay, and may be had of several colours and s...
-4. Concrete
For massive engineering works, such as breakwaters, docks, and sea-walls, and for the foundations of structures great or small, concrete has been largely used, but for the walls of ordinary houses it ...
-Materials
For the matrix of concrete for external walls Portland cement is by far the most satisfactory material. The best cement only must be used - finely ground, strong, and sound.1 The sand must be sharp, f...
-Brick Or Stone Walls With Concrete Hearting
One great objection to the construction of solid concrete walls is the cost and inconvenience entailed by the use of the temporary scaffoldingand shutters, and the objection has special force in the c...
-5. Hollow Walls
In exposed situations rain is often driven by the wind quite through a solid wall, especially when the materials of the wall are porous or badly laid. Sometime* the dampness of walls is due to neglect...
-6. Weather-Tiling
Tile-hung walls have been frequently constructed in recent years, especially for country houses. Buildings in which weather-tiling is adopted usually have the lowest or ground story built entirely of ...
-7. Half-Timber Walls
Half-timber work is the name given to that kind of external wall in which a timber framing is exposed to view, the spaces or panels between the timbers being filled with brickwork or plaster. An...
-8. Expedients For Throwing Rain Off Walls
The soaking of rain into walls may be very largely prevented by various little devices, by means of which the rain blown against the walls is diverted from its course down the walls and thrown clear o...
-Chapter IV. Mortar And Stucco
The importance of good mortar can scarcely be over-estimated. If the mortar is bad. the wall is bad. Bad mortar allows wind and rain to penetrate, favours vegetation, easily cracks, and rapidly crumbl...
-Mortar And Stucco. Part 2
The wisdom of allowing no more than four volumes of sand to be used with cement is manifest, and it is certainly better that even a smaller proportion of sand should be used, or that a certain amount ...
-Mortar And Stucco. Part 3
When pointing has to be adopted, the mortar should be raked out to tin-depth of about an inch, and fresh mortar inserted and finished in one of the ways just described. The square projecting pointings...
-Chapter V. Internal Walls And Partitions
Internal walls are occasionally built of stone or concrete, but more frequently of brick, the thickness as a rule depending mainly on the amount of money available. Brick walls only A inches thick ar...
-Chapter VI. Fireplaces And Chimneys
One of the most important features of a British home is the open fire. When properly arranged, this is not only a cheerful and pleasant means of warming a room, but it is also an excellent ventilator,...
-Fireplaces And Chimneys. Part 2
Fourthly, as to the chimney-stack - 1. The best position for a chimney-stack is on the ridge of the roof, some distance from the gable end. The slope of the roof not far from the ridge is also good, ...
-Fireplaces And Chimneys. Part 3
Fig. 69 - Plan and Elevation of Recess for Dog.grate. Fig. 70. - Elevation and Section of Chimney breasts and Flues for Sitting room and Bedroom. A. Sitting-room fireplace. B, bedroom fireplace;...
-Chapter VII. Roofs
There are two classes of roofs - flat and pitched. Flat roofs (so-called) have only the slightest inclination, merely sufficient to allow rain-water to flow to the outlets. They are usually of wood co...
-1. Flat Roofs
Flat roofs are now being constructed for board schools, blocks of workmen's dwellings, lodging-houses, and other buildings where space for recreation and other purposes is desired; but for small house...
-1. Flat Roofs. Continued
In long gutters on roofs of low pitch the uppermost length of the gutter may be so broad that it will not be wise to lay it in one piece. A longitudinal roll-joint is then necessary, as shown at c in ...
-2. Pitched Roofs
Into the details of construction of ordinary pitched roofs I do not propose to enter. One or two points, however, may be briefly alluded to. Care must be taken that the ends of roof-timbers do not ent...
-2. Pitched Roofs. Part 2
Slates must be so laid that wind and rain cannot pass directly letween them. To attain this object, the slates in alternate courses must be laid to break joint as shown in figs. 78 and 83, and the...
-2. Pitched Roofs. Part 3
The first course of slates must be shorter than the ordinary slates by the amount of the gauge to which the slating is to be laid. The gauge of slating as of tiling is the length of slate (or tile) ex...
-2. Pitched Roofs. Part 4
Fig. 85 -Ridding formed with Wood Roll and Lead. Table V. Weight Of Roofs Material. Weight per sq. yd in cwt Timber framing, 3 to R...
-Chapter VIII. Floors
1. Ground-Floors Impervious ground-floors resting on the solid ground have certain advantages over the ordinary joisted and boarded floors raised a foot or so above the ground or ground-layer. They a...
-Floors. Continued
A variety of wood-block flooring consists of the use of longer pieces of wood, secret-nailed to fixing-blocks embedded in the concrete below, or to fillets of coke-breeze concrete. Special fixing-bl...
-2. Upper Floors
The upper floors of ordinary houses are usually formed with wood joists covered above with floor-boards and beneath with wood laths and plaster. The joists must be trimmed (see Fig. 70, page 130) arou...
-Chapter IX. Windows, Doors, Skirtings, And Stairs
1. Windows The windows of a house have a very important influence on its comfort and health fulness. To some of the general principles of window design, attention has already been drawn in Chapter I....
-Windows, Doors, Skirtings, And Stairs. Continued
Fig 91 -Wood casement and Frame, the casement to open Inward. A. horisontal section of Jamb and stile; B, vertical section of sill and bot lam rail. cc. grooves to collect water driven along Joints...
-2. Doors
Doors in houses are not generally of elaborate or peculiar construction, and do not therefore call for much notice. External doors should be made of good red deal or of one of the hardwoods - oak, mah...
-3. Skirtings, Plinths, Etc
Skirting's are usually of wood, moulded on the top edge, and fixed to form a sort of base or plinth to internal walls. As a rule, they are nailed either directly to plugs driven into the wall, or to w...
-4. Stairs
Stairs in houses are generally of wood, framed together, but occasionally solid steps of oak are used after the manner of stone steps. Solid wood steps are more durable and offer greater resistance to...
-Chapter X. Plaster, Wall-Tiles, Etc
Plaster is the popular name for the ordinary covering of lime and sand applied to internal walls. Technically, the word plaster often signifies plaster of Paris. Ordinary plaster consists of slaked ...
-Section VII. Sanitary Fittings. Chapter I. General Principles
In choosing the sanitary fittings for a dwelling house, certain main principles, applicable to all classes of fittings alike, should be carefully kept in view. Of these, cleanliness must naturally hol...
-Chapter II. Baths
Baths are made of the following materials: copper, sheet-iron, cast-iron, steel, zinc, slate, fire-clay, marble, wood, and wood lined with lead. Of the various kinds of metal used for baths, copper i...
-Baths. Part 2
Copper baths may also be finished with a planished surface, which looks bright and clean, but requires regular and frequent attention to keep it in proper condition. Cast-iron baths can be finished w...
-Baths. Part 3
The uncertainty of the process, and the large proportion of the bath that come out of the kiln all-buts,seconds, and thirds (although each has had the same amount of labour and care bestowed up...
-Baths. Part 4
Plate XI KEYHOLE-SHAPED BATH, FITTED WITH SHOWER, DOUCHE, SPRAY, AND WAVE ARRANGEMENTS. etc. There are, of course, many other forms of overflow and waste, in combination or separately; the example...
-Chapter III. Lavatories
A well-arranged lavatory basin, provided with hot and cold water, is a con-vcuieuce which saves much time and labour, but the advantage gained in these respects may be more than counterbalanced if due...
-Chapter IV. Sinks
Sinks are used for various purposes, and are made of several different materials. In small houses and cottages the one sink has to serve for all purposes. In it plates, dishes, and other crockery, veg...
-Sinks. Continued
Galziron strainer and standing waste Fig. 276 - Galvanised iron Sink for Waste Metal Utensiles. The glazed fire-clay sinks already referred to are most appropriate for larder and dairy use, and for...
-Chapter V. Water-Closets
A glance at the history of the subject shows that the use of water for the conveyance of faecal matter from latrines is a practice of very considerable antiquity. Sir John Simon says that in Home publ...
-Water-Closets. Part 2
Fig. 284. - View of Bramah's Water-c;loset. Fig. 285 - Section of Pan- Closet. The D-trap. referred to as usually forming a fourth part of the pan-apparatus is not an essential adjunct, but i...
-Water-Closets. Part 3
Fig. 288 - Section of the Twin-basin Closet. The next class of apparatus to be considered is one in which the water used for Hushing is the waste-water from a sink or sinks, and is not specially la...
-Water-Closets. Part 4
The hopper closet, now happily almost universally condemned, consists of a long funnel shaped basin with a trap underneath, its means of flushing being a dribble of water from a small pipe, turned on ...
-Water-Closets. Part 5
Closets of the wash-down or short-hopper type are made by several makers, with porcelain trays at the top, in order that they can be used as slop-sinks. The ordinary pedestal-closet is also well adapt...
-Water-Closets. Part 6
Fig. 296 - Joint between Earthenware Outgo of Closet and Lead Branch of Soil pipe,as required by the London County Council. Fig. 297 - Doulton's Mettalo-ceramic,Joint between Earthenware and Lead...
-Water-Closets. Part 7
Fig. 304 - Section of Basin's Direct-acting Valveless Waste-preventer. The cisterns which have been referred to as discharging their whole contents automatically are, with one or two exceptions, co...
-Chapter VI. Urinals
Of all the various fittings which come under the head of sanitary appliances, the urinal is the most difficult to deal with. Urine contains 54 per cent of urea, which decomposes very rapidly, producin...
-Section VIII. - Drainage. Chapter I. General Design
One of the prime necessaries of life is an abundant supply of pure water for dietetic and cleansing purposes; after use, in the first case, it is vended by the body, and in the other, it is fouled eit...
-Drainage. General Design. Part 2
0.55 inch in 5 minutes. 1. 50 inches in 45 minutes. 1.10 inches in 15 minutes. 1 -80 inches in 60 minutes. 1 25 inches in 30 minutes. 2.20 inches in 120 minutes....
-Drainage. General Design. Part 3
In many districts, it is the usual practice to connect the rain-water pipes directly with the drains, under the assumption, possibly, that they will serve as ventilators. This is a very mischievous pr...
-Drainage. General Design. Part 4
20. Workmanship. - To ensure sound sanitary work, the best skilled labour must be employed under the supervision of a competent expert, and all completed work must be carefully and adequately tested b...
-Drainage. General Design. Part 5
Fig. 307. - Diagram Illustrating the terms Sewer and Drain. If we examine the basement plan, we find that there are sinks in the scullery from which the wastes will have to be carried away; this ...
-Chapter II. The Size And Capacity Of Drains
In times gone by there seems to have been no rule, beyond the rule of thumb, for determining the size of house drains, if one may judge from the size of those so often discovered about old houses, whe...
-The Size And Capacity Of Drains. Part 2
While the velocity of a pipe should not be less than 180 feet per minute, it is not an advantage to have excessive gradients, especially in branch drains, because the excessive velocity so produced wo...
-The Size And Capacity Of Drains. Part 3
Flu. 810 -Data for Calculating Flow In Circular Sewers. C.C = carrying capacity. H. = height in feet; D. - diameter or width at springing in feet; P.c.c. = proportional earning capacity (the width,...
-Chapter III. Drain-Pipes
The chief points to be considered in the selection of drain-pipes are strength, durability, tightness, smoothness, nature of the material, shape, and method of jointing. 1. Strength of drains. - At f...
-Drain-Pipes. Part 2
To produce this glaze upon a fire-clay or stoneware pipe, it is usual to throw salt into the kiln during the tiring, so that when the pipe is completely burnt, it has a highly-glazed surface, which pr...
-Drain-Pipes. Part 3
Fig. 313 - Joints in Cast -iron Drain pipes. 6. Shape of drain-pipes. We have already laid it down that pipes must be perfectly cylindrical, but it must not be forgotten that the era-shaped pipe, i...
-Drain-Pipes. Part 4
The cutting of socket hole for the purpose of giving the barrel of the pipes a continuous rest upon a firm foundation is very seldom performed except and closest supervision, nor is the puddle band ta...
-Drain-Pipes. Part 5
Fig. 319 shows the Loco self-centring joint. It will be seen that on the socket are two lugs, c and D, on which the spigot rests, so as to bring the inverts true at the joints. The lugs prevent the ...
-Drain-Pipes. Part 6
Where running sand or subsoil-water is likely to be met with in the ground, or where the drain is laid close to a water-course, and where special precautions must be taken to exclude a possible percol...
-Drain-Pipes. Part 7
The double-seal joint for water-logged ground (Fig. 327) has the sealingchamber at the seat of the socket and rest pieces to ensure a true alignment of the invert, hut the socket is extended, and a co...
-Chapter IV. Ventilation, Disconnection, And Inspection
It has already been laid down that the air-communication between the public sewer and the house-drain shall he severed, and that the latter must not terminate in a dead end, but be amply ventilated by...
-Ventilation, Disconnection, And Inspection. Part 2
The ventilating pipes and shafts must not be less in any case than the sectional area of the drain with which they are connected. In some instance the air-inlet upon the house side of the trap is an o...
-Ventilation, Disconnection, And Inspection. Part 3
Sub-section A of By daw 65 states that the second opening to the drain shall be obtained by carrying up, at the head of the drain if possible, a ventilating pipe or shaft in such a position as effectu...
-Ventilation, Disconnection, And Inspection. Part 4
The bottoms of manholes should always be formed of concrete, pioperif prepared and laid to the shape of the invert, which should be accurately moulded to receive the channel. This channel should be fo...
-Chapter V. The Trapping Of Drain Inlets
The last paragraph of By-law 62 provides that every inlet to a drain, not being an inlet for the ventilation of the drain, shall be properly trapped. By-law 66 specifies the particular way in which th...
-The Trapping Of Drain Inlets. Part 2
In certain cases subsoil-water finds its way through the walls or floors into cellars. The insertion of a gully in the cellar floor for carrying off such water is certainly not a sanitary method. This...
-The Trapping Of Drain Inlets. Part 3
It will thus be seen that sewage can be raised by simple automatic apparatus involving practically no expense in maintenance, in which there are no moving parts, except flap-valve, nor other mechanism...
-The Trapping Of Drain Inlets. Part 4
Where the drain is in proper working order, there can be no reasonable objection to this system. In a previous chapter, the principles of drain-disconnection and the reasons for it, were fully descri...
-The Trapping Of Drain Inlets. Part 5
There is also a slight drop at the outgo of the trap, which gives it the cascade motion, similar to Stidder's. The Loco intercepting trap is shown in Fig. 178, Where the drains have an equal fall, a...
-The Trapping Of Drain Inlets. Part 6
The following extract from a report by Mr. Rogers Field, M.I.C.E., dated 6th January, 1876, on Uppingham Sewerage and Private Drainage, gives a striking instance of the passage of sewer-gas through ...
-The Trapping Of Drain Inlets. Part 7
The grease from sinks can be removed in two ways - either by adopting an appliance which collects the grease, and from which it has to be removed at frequent intervals by hand (this of course necessit...
-Chapter VI. Construction Of Drains
The first necessity in the construction of drains is a ground plan of the premises, showing the position of the whole of the sanitary appliances from which the waste-water has to le conveyed away,...
-Construction Of Drains. Part 2
The next stage is the cutting of the trench and the laying of the drain. There are two methods of laying the pipe to the gradient required, the one being by the use of the boning-rod and sight-rails, ...
-Construction Of Drains. Part 3
Section 21 of the Public Health Act, 1875, confers the right upon the owner or occupier of premises to have his drains connected to the sewers of the Council, on condition that he complies with the Co...
-Construction Of Drains. Part 4
Messrs. Gates & Green also make a patent socketless access-pipe, in connection with which a loose fire-clay ring or thimble is slipped over for the purpose of making the joint. The access-hole permits...
-Construction Of Drains. Part 5
As the excavation proceeds, the sides of the trench should be supported by proper timbering fixed by experienced and competent timbering. Fig. 403 shows a cross-section of a trench fully timbered Th...
-Chapter VII. Flushing, Cleansing, And Testing Drains
It is rightly considered that a scheme of town-sewerage cannot work satisfactorily without proper arrangements for flushing the sewers, the appliances for the purpose being placed at the head of all l...
-Flushing, Cleansing, And Testing Drains. Part 2
Mr. Rogers Field has also devised another form of tank, which is shown in Fig. 408, called the Self-acting Flush-tank, and which may be used in connection with sink-wastes. The apparatus consists of...
-Flushing, Cleansing, And Testing Drains. Part 3
The Miller syphon has lately been introduced into this country from America. The following description of it is taken from Engineering, February 1, 1895: -The flushing syphon is one which has been la...
-Flushing, Cleansing, And Testing Drains. Part 4
It may be thought that, if drains are constructed upon the conditions already laid down, and if proper attention is paid to their maintenance, there is no possible chance of their getting stopped up. ...
-Section IX. Sewage-Disposal. Chapter I. Sewage
An important consideration, so fur as a sanitary house is concerned, is the getting rid of the waste products known as sewage, in a manner that shall be expeditious, inoffensive, and economical. The...
-Chapter II. Outfalls Into The Sea, Estuaries, And Large Rivers
Under certain circumstances and with proper precautions, the discharge of crude sewage into the sea can be carried out in a satisfactory manner without danger of any nuisance, and such a disposal has ...
-Chapter III. Treatment Of Sewage With Various Chemicals
The evils arising: from the introduction of drains and sewers in place of the old middens and cess-pits, and the desire to prevent the waste of what was then considered to be a valuable manorial produ...
-Treatment Of Sewage With Various Chemicals. Part 2
Case B. - Somewhat similar to A, but 15 cwts. of milk of lime are added to the swage the precipitation, however, is done in thirty tanks, each tank having a cubic capacity of 50,000 gallons, or l mil...
-Treatment Of Sewage With Various Chemicals. Part 3
At Wimbledon the alumino-ferric is applied in the form of blocks about 30 inches x 20 inches x 3 inches, piled on edge in a large wooden vessel through which a stream of water is made to pass, and th...
-Treatment Of Sewage With Various Chemicals. Part 4
This method is specially adapted to hospitals and other large public buildings. The salt-water could be decomposed in moderate-sized tanks plated OX) each floor, and allowed to run into the drain-sys...
-Chapter IV. The Disposal Of Sewage Sludge
A residuum which is technically known as sludge remains, as already stated, in all sewage-settling tanks after chemical treatment, and the ultimate disposal of this offensive.slimy semi-fluid materi...
-Chapter V. Filtration Through Artificial Filters And Through Land
Many were the early efforts to purify sewage by passing it through mechanical filters, either stationary, joggling, or rotating, but all these attempts, it is needless to state, were entirely unsucces...
-Filtration Through Artificial Filters And Through Land. Continued
1 At Swinton, near Manchester, this rate is about 680 gallons of effluent per 24 hours, per square yard of surface of filter. The following is an analysis of this filtered effluent, made by the emine...
-Chapter VI. Broad Irrigation
The disposal of sewage by Broad Irrigation, so called to distinguish it from Intermittent Filtration, finds considerable favour with a great number of sanitarians, on the reasonable grounds that what ...
-Broad Irrigation. Continued
There can be no doubt that the question of the disposal of the sewage of any town or building must be fully considered with all the surrounding circumstance and each ease requires careful and anxious ...
-Chapter VII. The Septic And Other Bacterial Systems
We will now turn to a recently-discovered process, which is almost a complete reversal of all the methods hitherto applied to sewage, for instead of endeavouring to arrest decomposition, the object of...
-The Septic And Other Bacterial Systems. Part 2
The effluent from the tank is comparatively clear and inoffensive, and not liable to any subsequent fermentation, the work of decomposition being already done. In this state, there osa le no reaso...
-The Septic And Other Bacterial Systems. Part 3
The analysis of the effluent from the filter of one of these works as taken by Dr. Rideal, was as follows:- Parts per 100,000. Total solids, ......... 76.8 Mineral ma...
-The Septic And Other Bacterial Systems. Part 4
Col. Ducat calls his filter the Aerated Bacterial Self-Acting Filter, and the following is taken from a circular letter issued by him on the subject: - By this method of disposal, the sewage, take...
-The Septic And Other Bacterial Systems. Part 5
Messrs. Dibdin and Thudiehum give their solution of the problem as follows: ' In the recognition of the fact that all processes of sewage-purification must be made subservient to the requirements of ...
-Chapter VIII. Interception Or Dry Systems
Having thus far treated of methods of dealing with water-carried sewage, it will be necessary to turn to the question of what is known as Interception, or the intercepting of the faecal matter and...
-Interception Or Dry Systems. Part 2
A further improvement is shown in the midden-closet as formerly constructed at Stamford (Fig. 433), where the seat is hinged, so that it can be thrown up and the house-ashes emptied on to the contents...
-Interception Or Dry Systems. Part 3
The following is a description of the method at one time followed at Manchester, and which, with some modifications, is still employed. The pails having been emptied over a grating which held back the...
-Chapter IX. Sewage Disposal From Houses Not Connected With Any Sewerage-System
Having thus far dealt with the general question of the disposal of sewage, it is neccessary to say a few words upon that very difficult problem of the disposal of sewage from isolated houses, which ha...
-Sewage Disposal From Houses Not Connected With Any Sewerage-System. Continued
1 For particulars of rainfall. see IIL. WaterSapply The drain from the house should enter above the highest point to which the sewage can rise in the cesspool, and be trapped and ventilated exactl...
-Section X. Warming. Chapter I. Introductory
The subject of warming is one of the most important in the design of a dwelling-house, and the problem as to the best method to be employed in any particular instance, is not always easy of solution. ...
-Chapter II. Open Fires And Stoves
The open fire was the earliest method of warning houses, and many persons still consider it by far the best. In early times, it was usual to form the fire upon a solid hearth in the centre of the room...
-Open Fires And Stoves. Part 2
These bare, while effectually preventing the emission of cinders, allow a greater space for the free radiation of heat. The Nautilus Grate is a kind of slow-combustion dog-grate, lined with firebrick...
-Open Fires And Stoves. Part 3
The Grundy Grate is somewhat similar to the Galton grate, and is shown in Plate XVII. The fresh-air opening through the outer wall is shown at a, or, if more convenient, it can be put lower down as at...
-Open Fires And Stoves. Part 4
'The shape of the grate or grid is arrived at in the following way: - Describe a square d - of which the sides shall be 8, 9, or 10 inches, according to the size of the room - within an equilateral tr...
-Open Fires And Stoves. Part 5
Two views of the Helios fireplace are shown in Fig. 468. When the Helios Stove is used. with a hopper, it consists of the fire-box a, which is lined with fire-bricks, the hopper B, and the pipe-syste...
-Open Fires And Stoves. Part 6
In order to burn coal without smoke, it must be changed into coke. This cannot be done in an open grate, and the arrangement invented by Mr. Heim affords, in my opinion, a very satisfactory solution o...
-Open Fires And Stoves. Part 7
The smoke-nuisance is undoubtedly due in a great measure to the imperfect combustion of fuel in household fires. Indeed, some authorities go so far as to say that houses are greater sinners in this re...
-Chapter III. Gas-Stoves And Oil-Stoves
1. Gas-Stoves That the gas-stove is now so largely and so successfully used, is probably due more to Mr. Fletcher of Warrington than to anyone else. He made the subject of heating by gas a special st...
-Chapter IV. Heating By Hot Or Warmed Air
Before describing the various systems by which the dwelling-house may be heated by hot or warmed air, it may be well to say that to use this as the Bole method of heating, to the exclusion of open fir...
-Heating By Hot Or Warmed Air. Part 2
In the United States, Smead's system of heating by hot air has been very widely used in public schools and other buildings, and is stated to have given great satisfaction. Before describing this syste...
-Heating By Hot Or Warmed Air. Part 3
The Helm System is the invention of Mr. H. Heim, an Austrian, and has been very largely adopted in Austria, Hungary, and other parts of Europe. The system consists of a central heating-apparatus, whic...
-Heating By Hot Or Warmed Air. Part 4
I have already described the Smead system, which is so well known in the United States, and also a characteristic continental system; it will now be of interest to see how the same problem has been tr...
-Heating By Hot Or Warmed Air. Part 5
Having now dealt with some of the methods adopted for passing warm air in large volumes into the rooms of buildings, as the sole means of warming and ventilation, I shall draw attention to a combined ...
-Heating By Hot Or Warmed Air. Part 6
The air is let into the rooms at about 65 F., and the authors remark that, when there are living beings in the room, their bodies are at 98o F., and the vitiated air ascends and the incoming warm...
-Chapter V. Heating By Hot Water
The subject of heating: by hot water may be conveniently divided into two parts - low-pressure heating and high-pressure heating, which will be dealt with separately, as the arrangements of the variou...
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System
The boiler is perhaps the most important feature in any installation, as upon it depends principally whether the system will be economical in the use of fuel, or very expensive. The number of types a...
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System. Part 2
The boiler illustrated in Fig. 505 is known as the into which is welded an inner cylinder of Siemens mild-steel plate The metal is 5/16 inch thick, or. for better work, 3/8-inch. The water-space is br...
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System. Part 3
The ash-base of this beater is provided with an ash-pan, the convenience of which will at once appear. In connection with the fire-pot, the makers draw attention to a very ingenious contrivance, by w...
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System. Part 4
The danger is thus obviated that the combustion should be too intense if the furnace-door is inadvertently left open. Fig. 517-View of Exterior of Korting's Boiler. C.Furnace-door, D,patent grate;...
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System. Part 5
There are many cases where pipes of this character would be an eyesore if carried above the floor, but there is a system of placing the pipes in a specially-formed trench covered with a metal grating....
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System. Part 6
There will, in that case, be a circulation of the air in the room only, and the out let-ventilator, at the ceiling or the floor-level as the case may be, must be kept closed. As no fresh air is allowe...
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System. Part 7
L be applied to the bottom of the tank and heat the water contained therein, then the water in the portion a b will be colder, and therefore heavier, than the corresponding column in the tank, and the...
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System. Part 8
It is advisable then, and then only, to use the lower arrangement. Radiators connected to a branch circulation-pipe are often on the one-pipe system, as shown in Fig. 539. A great saving of pipe can t...
-1. The Low-Pressure Hot Water Heating System. Part 9
In cases where there are no intervening doorways or fireplaces, a 3-inch or 4-inch cast-iron pipe may be arranged, as shown in Fig. 520, page 122. This is fed by a small wrought-iron pipe, and for sma...
-2. The High-Pressure Hot Water Heating System
In my description of the low-pressure system of heating by hot water, it was pointed out that the apparatus was in communication with the open air, so that no pressure, except that due to the height o...
-Chapter VI. Low-Pressure Steam Heating
The system of heating by low-pressure steam is very similar to that of heating by low-pressure hot water, except that, instead of having an apparatus quite full of water and open to the air, so that i...
-Low-Pressure Steam Heating. Part 2
In some cases it is very desirable that brickwork should be avoided; a vertical type of boiler should then be used, such, for instance, as that shown in Fig. 547. This type has the very important adva...
-Low-Pressure Steam Heating. Part 3
The working of the apparatus is quite simple. The boiler g, and the syphon air-vessel r', are filled with water to the required level, and as soon as steam is generated in the boiler, the air, occupyi...
-Low-Pressure Steam Heating. Part 4
I have entered at some length into a description of Messrs. Korting Bro-special system, because I consider that their method of dealing with the air and condensed water is extremely ingenious. In exam...
-Chapter VII. General Conclusions
I consider the system of open fires of coal or wood to be by far the most healthy of all the systems which have now been described; and, with due Attention to the methods by which the consumption of f...
-Section XI. - Warming And Cooking By Electricity
Before entering upon a discussion of the merits and demerits of the utilization of electricity as a means of producing heat, either for cooking or warming, it would be well to consider the causes whic...
-Warming And Cooking By Electricity. Part 2
In the earlier experiments with heating-resistances, cement of different kinds was largely used, but owing to its breakable and porous nature, air very soon got to the wires, oxidation set in, and the...
-Warming And Cooking By Electricity. Part 3
Small appliances, like kettles and other movable objects, usually get their connection by means of two flexible silk-covered wires in the form of a cord, at the end of which is a plug carrying two sma...
-Section XII. Ventilation. Chapter I. General Facts And Principles
In dealing with the subject of ventilation in any form, it is necessary to touch upon elementary facts, which are applicable to whatever class of building or place it may be required to ventilate, yet...
-Ventilation. Chapter I. General Facts And Principles. Part 2
2. Without examining closely the composition of atmospheric air, it may be accepted that it is a mechanical mixture of gasess - viz. oxygen and nitrogen - approximately in the proportions of one volum...
-Ventilation. Chapter I. General Facts And Principles. Part 3
The foregoing statements as to the complex nature of the subject are intended to show that, if means for securing ventilation are to be employed beneficially, they must be applied with knowledge and b...
-Chapter II. Natural Forces Making For Ventilation
To change the air of a building two things are primarily essential: (1) an Air inlet, and (2) an air-out. This may appear so obvious a requirement that no more need be said there-on, but although it ...
-Natural Forces Making For Ventilation. Part 2
As the employment of mechanical means for ventilating single dwellings and is likely to be, of rane occurrence in this country at least for many years to come it is not proposed to enter further into ...
-Natural Forces Making For Ventilation. Part 3
Ordinary dwellings in this country are more frequently warmer than the osier atmosphere, and open fires are commonly employed during the colder months of the year; consequently, unless each room recei...
-Natural Forces Making For Ventilation. Part 4
It unfortunatelv happens that many eminent writers on ventilation, without carefully distinguishing between the kind of ventilation required, advocate the placing of air-inlets and outlets on opposite...
-Chapter III. The Planning And Construction Of Houses With Regard O Their Ventilation
The aspect and situation of a house may have a decided effect for better or worse upon its ventilation. If overshadowed by more lofty buildings, elevated ground or trees, free circulation of air aroun...
-The Planning And Construction Of Houses With Regard O Their Ventilation. Continued
Houses built of excessively porous materials, on the other hand, may be much more unhealthy, because, in rainy weather, the tendency is for them to absorb much wet, which, if it does not actually pene...
-Chapter IV. Air-Currents And Air-Inlets
Before deciding upon the position of a special air-inlet, particularly to an existing room, it is important to ascertain the direction of the air-currents in the room with a new to ascertaining that p...
-Air-Currents And Air-Inlets. Continued
The market is so full of all kinds of appliances called Ventilators, that difficulty In selection is experienced by those who have not a clear conception of what is required, or of what is possible ...
-Chapter V. Air-Outlets
Too much stress cannot be laid upon the fact that in most British homes, when- open fires are provided in almost every room, the smoke-flues from the fireplaces must be regarded as the exits for air. ...
-Air-Outlets. Continued
The different kinds of extract-cowl are very numerous indeed, but they fall into two distinct classes: - (1) Cowls with movable parts; and (2) Cowls without movable parts. (1) Cowls with movable part...
-Chapter VI. Natural Ventilation
Much has been said and written as to the respective advantages of upward and downward ventilation, and I am inclined to think that the more general condemnation of downward ventilation has been arrive...
-Chapter VII. Contamination Of Air, Etc
The principal causes of the contamination of air in rooms, other than want of adequate change of air, are: (1) Deposits of animal and organic matter , including exhalations from human beings and anima...
-Contamination Of Air, Etc. Continued
Articles of furniture, walls, floors, etc, in greater quantities than where an adequate movement of air is freely permitted. Naturally there may be various reasons why at different times more or less ...
-Chapter VIII. Warming And Ventilation
For some six months of the year in this country artificial heat is a necessity in our homes. At such times the outer atmosphere is too cold for the comfort of occupants when little exertion is being m...
-Warming And Ventilation. Continued
Improvements in arrangement and construction may be expected, and now, in careful hands, there are several appliances which may be usefully employed. Of these, figs. 604, 605, and 606 are examples; th...
-Chapter IX. Ventilation Summary
It has been my endeavour, in the foregoing remarks upon ventilation, to lead those who have to build and those who occupy houses, to realize the intricacies of the subject when regarded as affecting c...
-Supplementary Chapter By The Editor, Ventilation By Means Of Warmed Air
Plates XX., XXI., and XXII., which illustrate two well-arranged houses erected from the designs of a London architect, Mr. E. J. May, have been introduced, with Mr. May's kind permission, for the purp...
-Section XIII. Lighting. Part I. Candles, Oils, And Electricity
Chapter I. Candles And Oils The illuminating: power of candles is subject to great variations, owing partly to their mode of construction, and also to the great irregularities caused by the lengtheni...
-Lighting. Part I. Candles, Oils, And Electricity. Continued
A good lamp will fulfil the following conditions: - 1. It will be made of a material not easily broken. 2. Such material, if of metal or other heat-conducting substance, will be insulated from the b...
-Chapter II. Electricity: Definitions
At the outset it is necessary to define a few of the technical terms in use among electricians. Volts, Voltage, Electro-motive Force, Potential, - all signify pressure; just as water is delivered at ...
-Chapter III. Electricity: Generation And Storage
The simplest method of obtaining current in practical form for electric lighting is, no doubt, the primary battery, but owing to the small amount of energy obtainable from a battery of reasonable dime...
-Electricity: Generation And Storage. Part 2
The explanation is that, no matter how soft the iron of which the magnets are made, they generally retain sufficient residual magnetism to cause them, to a slight extent, to act as permanent magnets, ...
-Electricity: Generation And Storage. Part 3
Now in the case of the shunt dynamo, unlike the series, the less the external resistance the weaker will be the machine, since the amount of current flowing in the magnet-winding and the external ...
-Electricity: Generation And Storage. Part 4
Of the three types of dynamos mentioned, series machines are little used except for the lighting of arc lamps, themselves in series, - that is to say, the current from one terminal of the dynamo trave...
-Electricity: Generation And Storage. Part 5
In order to avoid confusion in the readers mind I have hitherto avoided mentioning any but continuous - current dynamos, i.e. those generating a current flowing continuously and uninterruptedly in one...
-Electricity: Generation And Storage. Part 6
To return now to transformers, the advantages of which I have to explain. If we transmit 1000 amperes at a pressure of 100 volts for 2 miles, the size of cable must be very large and costly, but if we...
-Electricity: Generation And Storage. Part 7
On charging a cell, the positive plate - that is to say, the plate connected to the positive terminal of the dynamo - becomes the colour of wet chocolate, and the negative plate that of slate. The dee...
-Electricity: Generation And Storage. Part 8
The voltage of 1.9, so often mentioned here, is only that to which makers recommend their (ells lK?ing discharged. In some instances, a figure as low as 1.8 is stated to be that to which a particular ...
-Electricity: Generation And Storage. Part 9
A voltmeter, being designed to measure pressure, must be connected across the terminals of the article to be measured; for instance, to measure a dynamo, one of the terminals of the meter must be conn...
-Chapter IV. Electricity: Wiring And Lamps
Wiring is a oomprehensivo term, including all methods of conveying electricity through wires to and from the various points at which it is to be utilized. Before the proa and cons of the different m...
-Electricity: Wiring And Lamps. Part 2
Except by a mistake, no lamp is likely to be so badly treated as the one mentioned, but it is of daily occurrence for lamps made for (say) a 100-volt circuit, to be- submitted to 105 or 110 volts for ...
-Electricity: Wiring And Lamps. Part 3
We have now in our mind a number of lamps connected at various points throughout the length of the main cables and their branches, and we know that each lamp is allowing only a little current to go th...
-Electricity: Wiring And Lamps. Part 4
If a short circuit did happen, then would be the main and sub-main cut-outs to rely upon, but nevertheless electrical engineers consider the point of such importance that they often fix the cut-out ac...
-Electricity: Wiring And Lamps. Part 5
Since an arrangement like that just described would be very costly for a large number of lamps in an intricate building, a compromise between the two systems is generally arrived at, by which, from th...
-Chapter V. Electricity: An Installation In A House
We will now consider ourselves in the position of an electrical engineer, designing and supervising the lighting of a country house. This work will, of course, offer a great contrast to an installatio...
-Electricity: An Installation In A House. Continued
The mains, consisting of 2000 megohm insulation of vulcanized rubber, covered with lead, we will lay about 12 inches under the turf in rough tarred-wood casing with a centra] rib, similar to that used...
-Section XIV. Lighting. Part II. Gas. Chapter I. Meters
All gas-meters bear a government stamp, and at times the stamp of the gas company, whether it be public or private. The government stamp, affixed after testing and payment of the fee according to the ...
-Chapter II. Gas-Pipes And Fittings, Etc
Lead pipe is the mast suitable for conveying gas in houses. It can be readily bent and fixed in all positions. The joinings can be soundly made, even when numerous connections come close together, and...
-Gas-Pipes And Fittings, Etc. Continued
Fig. 642. - Connection of Internal Gas main to Dry Meter. The taps to gas-fittings and supply-pipes are usually of the plain plug type, having a hole straight through the plug, a quarter-turn eithe...
-Chapter III. Gas Burners
The ordinary Bray's burner is the one in most general use. It is in no sense a governor, although it is arranged to check the pressure, and requires to be selected according to the amount of light req...
-Gas Burners. Part 2
A, bottom plate; B screw regulating supply to burner from gasholder, k ; c and D, two, out of three, tubes through which the gas if conducted to combustionchamber chamber, E; G, air-cone, regulating d...
-Gas Burners. Part 3
The cost of the incandescent light is therefore about one-half that of the regenerative, and only one-eighth that of the plain burners. The following is taken from the report of Professor Carlton Lam...
-Gas Burners. Part 4
The *C burner with by-pass is shown in Fig. 657. The feature of this burner is a lever arrangement, either with or without chains, which, on being turned up after opening the gas-tap, allows the burn...
-Chapter IV. Gas-Leakages And Explosions
One of the most frequent causes of explosion is the faulty gas-tap. All these taps have a small pin or stop inserted in the plug to prevent the taps from being turned past the centre, in such a way as...
-Section XIV. Gas-Producing Apparatus For The Illumination Of Country Houses. Chapter I. Coal-Gas
Four kinds of illuminating gas are now in practical use, the first being that obtained from the distillation of coal, the second from the retorting of oil, the third from the chemical action of water ...
-Coal-Gas. Part 2
Some coal deposits tarry substances in the ascension -pipe, and thus causes considerable trouble. The ascension-pipe should be provided with caps, which can be opened for the insertion of a clearing...
-Coal-Gas. Part 3
The object of purifying the gas is to remove from it two deleterious components, namely, sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid. The first compound should be completely removed, owing to its poisonou...
-Chapter II. Oil-Gas
There are two distinct systems of producing: illuminating gas by the retorting of oil. The direet cracking and gasifying in iron retorts is the plan in general use, and fractional distillation in pecu...
-Chapter III. Acetylene
In the year 1892, while making some experiments with an electric furnace, Mr. Thomas Leopold Wilson discovered that powdered coal and lime, mixed together in equal parts, fused under the influence of ...
-Chapter IV. Spirit-Gas
There is another system of producing illuminating gas, which, though not used extensively, is still in vogue. The gas is obtained by the complete evaporation of suitable spirits. Such fluids arc obtai...
-Section XV. The Sanitary Aspect Of Decoration And Furniture
1. General Considerations The essential purposes or aims of the internal arrangements, decoration, and furniture of our dwellings are health and comfort, together with the pleasure derived from the c...
-2. Sanitary Aspect Of Walls And Ceilings
Limewashing- is suitable only for stables, cowsheds, fowl-houses, and out buildings. It is made by mixing freshly burnt quicklime with water to the consistence of cream; no .size is used, and it there...
-2. Sanitary Aspect Of Walls And Ceilings. Continued
It is a popular but erroneous belief that arsenic is present in greens only; but while every shade of green can be had without arsenic, there is no colour - red, blue, brown, or white - which can as s...
-3. Sanitary Aspect Of Blinds And Curtains
All curtains are unavoidably collectors of dust, but this objection may be minimized by their being hung simply on poles without the needless and dangerous addition of heavy and insecurely-fixed corni...
-4. Sanitary Aspect Of Woodwork
The practice of covering: all woodwork with paint, concealing the natural beauty of the grain, and perhaps substituting some vulgar imitation, is at once senseless and useless. The preservation of the...
-6. Sanitary Aspect Of Furniture
Within the last ten years there has been a most gratifying improvement in the popular taste as regards furniture. In drawing-rooms, however, there has been a tendency to overcrowding with the trivial ...
-7. Sanitary Aspect Of Sweeping, Dusting, &C
Though the great aim of the architect and householder should be the prevention of dust, absolute success is unattainable, even in a house warmed and ventilated without open windows or coal fires in th...
-8. Sanitary Aspect Of Plants in Rooms
As to the pleasure derived from the cultivation of plants in rooms, - though very few are capable of resisting the poisonous action of the products of the combustion of gas, - there can be no differen...
-Section XVI. The Sanitary Inspection Of Houses. Chapter I. Water-Supply
In town houses, the water is usually obtained from the public supply, distributed through mains and service-pipes, but there are still some dwellings, even in our largest cities, provided either wholl...
-The Sanitary Inspection Of Houses. Chapter I. Water-Supply. Part 2
If the drain is proved to be the cause of pollution, it must be taken up, and a new and sound one constructed. The ground around the well, and the wall of the well, must be removed to a depth below th...
-The Sanitary Inspection Of Houses. Chapter I. Water-Supply. Part 3
Service-reservoirs and filters near towns, especially where manufactures are in saying that the magistrates had taken a wrong view of the clause. To use the words of Mr. Justice Lawrance. it is no mor...
-The Sanitary Inspection Of Houses. Chapter I. Water-Supply. Part 4
In towns which have a constant water-supply, cisterns for dietetic purposes not needed, and where one is found, it is better to advise its total disuse than to suggest a change from a lead cistern to ...
-Chapter II. Inspection For Dampness
When the bases of house-walls are wet, it may be found that the damp-course is either below, or not high enough above, the surface of the outside ground, or that the builder has forgotten to provide...
-Chapter III. Inspection Of Sanitary Fittings, Etc
It may appear at first sight paradoxical to say that the better the class of house, the greater the possibility of sanitary defect, but at a second glance we remember that the number and variety of co...
-Chapter IV. Drains
Drains are tested with either scent, smoke, or water. In the first, strong-smelling and volatile liquids are poured into the drains, defects in which may be revealed by the after-occurrence of the sce...
-Drains. Continued
Some drains have an outlet-shaft on the soil-pipe, but are not intercepted from the sewer. Even in this case, if the outlet-shaft is closed after the smoke has begun to issue from it, the test will ...
-Chapter V. Inspection For The Ventilation Of Rooms
The ventilation of rooms in ordinary dwelling-houses is usually sufficiently provided for by the door, windows, and fireplace. Efficient ventilation consists in providing both inlets and outlets for a...
-Inspection For The Ventilation Of Rooms. Continued
Tobin tubes will not be required. One or more openings may be made into this duct to permit the fresh air to descend into the room, or heated air to escape. It will be better, where practicable, to h...
-Chapter VI. Reports
The ordinary periodical report of the Inspector may be headed as follows: - Report of the Sanitary Inspector (or, Inspector of Nuisances) to the Sanitary Committee of the District (or other) Council ...
-Section XVII. The Improvement Of Existing Houses. Chapter I. Dampness
The visibly-predominant fault of old houses is generally dampness, with its train of rot, mildew, unsightliness, discomfort, and ill-health; and of all the ills to which houses are heir, this is undou...
-1. The Basement Dampness
Subsoil-drainage will seldom be found under or around old houses, or, if drains were originally laid, they were probably of stone, and have either collapsed or been choked with silt. In damp situation...
-2. The External Walls Dampness
The dampness of external walls above-ground is often a more annoying evil than that of damp basements. It may be due to the rising of moisture from wet ground, to the splashing up of rain-water droppi...
-3. The Roof Dampness
Rain and snow often enter a house through the roof, but it is only in very old property as a rule that dampness of a serious character is due to this cause. When a roof leaks, it will generally be fo...
-Chapter II. Woodwork
The improvement of the woodwork of a house need not be considered in detail. Internal doors, stairs, etc, are rather matters of taste than of sanitary importance, and the repair of windows and other j...
-Chapter III. Smoky Chimneys
The subject of smoky chimneys is undoubtedly most important and most difficult. In Chapter VI (Broad Irrigation)., Section II., Vol. I., certain rules were laid down for the construction of fireplaces...
-Chapter IV. Defective Plumbing And Drainage
The removal of sanitary defects is often a most expensive operation, involving, in many cases, structural alterations of considerable magnitude, such as the formation of water-closets and bath-rooms i...
-Defective Plumbing And Drainage. Part 2
The cistern G, on the had flat, is of slate, and holds about 300 gallons. It supplies the water for the bath w.c l, and the hot service throughout the house. It is recommended that this cistern be rem...
-Defective Plumbing And Drainage. Part 3
The recommendations of the Commissioners with respect to the apparatus themselves need not be described in detail. They include the removal of a pan-closet, a hopper-closet without Hushing rim, an old...
-Defective Plumbing And Drainage. Part 4
The hot-water service is on the tank-system, and the Commissioners recom-mend that the tank he removed and a 50-gallon galvanized-iron cylinder be 1 instead at 1 1 . close to the kitchen-range. The c...
-Defective Plumbing And Drainage. Part 5
E. This is a lead-lined wood cistern, holding about 400 gallons, and supplying all the fittings in the house, with the exception of the sinks O, P, and q, and the w.c. marked J. The recommendations of...
-Defective Plumbing And Drainage. Part 6
O. Reline this sink with 6-lb. lead, ventilate the traps, and extend the waste-pipes so as to discharge over the altered gully x. The Commissioners recommend the removal of the adjacent filter, as a ...
-Chapter V. The Specification Of Sanitary Improvements
The three examples given in the last chapter are more or less hypothetical; it will probably be useful, especially to the student, to give an example from the writer's own practice, and to give it in ...
-The Improvement Of Existing Houses
Excavation. - Take up the seta, Hags, etc as required for the new drains, slop-water closet, disconnecting chamber, etc,, and dig for and take up all existing drains. Excavate for the new drains, clos...
-The Improvement Of Existing Houses. Continued
Carry 1/2-inch lead-pipe 6 lbs. per yard to the urinal, and fit to same a 1/2-inch brass tap with loose iron handle, and wrap the pipe where exposed with hair-felt. Floors of Closet and Urinal. - Form...
-Chapter VI. External Sanitary Defects
Many houses are rendered unhealthy by the proximity of insanitary privies middens, cesspools, etc., and a few words must be included respecting these. Privies are almost invariably nuisances, and the...
-Chapter VII. Lightning-Conductors
It is now just about a hundred and fifty years since Benjamin Franklin, as related in his delightful autobiography, wrote a paper on the sameness of lightning with electricity, and thereby grievousl...
-Section XVIII. Climate And Situation. Chapter I. Meteorology
Climate is the genera] resultant of temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, rainfall, and other less-known factors, modified by soil, aspect, and various local conditions. Temperature is prima...
-Climate And Situation. Chapter I. Meteorology. Part 2
Table XLI. Weight (In Grains) Of Water-Vapour In A Cubic Foot Of Saturated Air1 From 14 to 88 F. Temperature, o F. Grains of Water in cubic foot of Air to Saturation. 1...
-Chapter II. The Site
It is only in the country that one has a perfectly free choice as to the site of a house, including the several conditions of soil, elevation, and aspect. Soil. - The influence of soil is more felt i...
-The Site. Part 2
Much of the rain absorbed by the surface-soil is, if the humidity of the atmosphere be considerably below saturation, returned to the air by evaporation, as is that which rises to the surface by capil...
-The Site. Part 3
Country of Lincoln and Cambridge, and in Romney Marsh in Kent, though it is less general and of a far less severe type than formerly. It also lingers here and there in other parts of the country. The ...
-The Site. Part 4
Fig. 718 shows the angles at which the sun's rays enter the windows on each side of a house standing directly north and south, on June 21 and December 21, the former being distinguished by open and th...
-The Site. Part 5
Fig. 724 shows the distribution of light and shade, without regard to the angle of aperture, in the ground, first, and second stories of houses, the heights of which are to the width of the streets as...
-The Site. Part 6
In London and the majority of large towns, Bristol being the most notable exception, the ventilation of the sewers is effected wholly or in great part by gratings in the roadway, under which trays of ...
-Chapter III. Water
The vapours rising from sea and land are condensed into rain on meeting with currents of cold air, or impinging on mountain-tops. When first formed the rain differs little, if at all, from distilled w...
-Water. Part 2
But if organic matter be buried too deep, or passed too rapidly into the dead earth, or if the living earth be taxed beyond its power, water charged with putrid matters may percolate for hundreds or e...
-Water. Part 3
Deep wells are those which, passing through one or m re impervious beds, tap a sheet of water in some lower stratum, which has percolated along it from its outcrop on hills or higher ground at a c...
-Water. Part 4
But the greatest dangers in water are beyond the power of analysis to recognize: a single cholera or typhoid evacuation discharged into a reservoir may set up an epidemic, though from its extreme dilu...
-Section XIX. Stables And Cow-Houses. Chapter I. Stables
In no country so much as in Britain is the horse at once the friend and the companion of man, and in no country is he so well housed The arrangement and the construction of a gentleman's stable are of...
-Stables. Part 2
Some of the materials used in the construction of stables will be treated upon in the detailed description of the several parts. With regard to the walls and roof, there is no special material that is...
-Stables. Part 3
It is indispensable that the stable floor should be impervious to moisture, capable of being easily cleaned, and with as few places for the lodgment of dirt as possible; the surface should have a suff...
-Stables. Part 4
A form of rack often recommended is quadrant-shaped, the bottom being on a level with the top of the manger, and in this case it should be fitted with a sloping perforated bottom, which allows the see...
-Stables. Part 5
A good harness-room is an indispensable adjunct to every stable, and, where a number of hunters are kept, a saddle-room also is is necessary. These should be placed as centrally as possible to the who...
-Stables. Part 6
The apartment for the hot-water boiler may be utilized as a coal-house, and for the barrows, forks, shovels, buckets, and other tools, which form the necessary outfit of a stable-yard. Slow-combustion...
-Chapter II. Cow-Houses
The horse is with justice considered to be the nobler animal, and the useful cow must always take the second place, and until lately almost any accommodation has been considered good enough for her. T...
-Section XX. Sanitary Law. Chapter I. England And Wales (Except London)
1. Sanitary Districts And Authorities (1.) Sanitary Districts and Authorities. For the purposes of Public Health administration, England and Wales are divided into districts, as follows: - (a) Count...
-3. Sewerage And Drainage
(9). Distinction between Drain and Sewer. The word drain is defined by the Public Health Act, 1875. to mean any drain used for the drainage of one building only, or of premises within the same c...
-4. Water And Water-Supply
(16.) Powers and Duties of Local Authorities as to Water-supply. All public cisterns, pumps, wells, reservoirs, aqueducts, and works used for the gratuitous supply of water, vest in the Local Authorit...
-5. Food
(21.) Inspection of Food generally. It is an offence under the Markets and Fairs Clauses Act, 1847, to sell unwholesome meat or provisions in a Market or Fair, and any inspector of provisions appoin...
-6. Statutory Provisions With Regard To The Prevention Of Disease
The statutory powers relating more directly to combating infections disease are those contained in the Notification and Prevention of Diseases Acta. (25.) The Infectious Diseases Notification Act, 18...
-7. Regulations And By Laws
(29.) Distinction between By-laws and Regulations. A large portion of the routine of sanitary administration is enforced by means of by-laws and regulations; both are local rules made under statut...
-8. Streets, Houses, And Unhealthy Areas
(31.) Scavenging of Streets, New Streets, Line of Frontage, etc. Local Authorities maw and when required by the Local Government Board, must cleanse and scavenge the streets under their control (Publi...
-9. Factories And Workshops
(36.) The Factories and Workshops Acts. The Factories and Workshops Acts in force are those of 1878, 1883, 1891, and 1895, and the Cotton Cloth Factory Acta of 1889 and 1897. The Factory Acts may also...
-Chapter II. Sanitary Law of London
(41.) Local Authorities in the Metropolis. The County of London includes the City; the districts set out in Schedules A and B of the Metropolis Management Act, 1855, as amended by subsequent Acts; W...
-Chapter IV. Sanitary Law of Scotland
(52.) Sanitary Acts in force in Scotland. There is no inconsiderable body of sanitary legislation common to England, Wales, and Scotland; the Housing of the Working Classes Act, the Rivers Pollution P...
-Sanitary Law of Scotland. Part 2
In similar cases the Scotch Local Government Board has power to apply to the Court of Session with the consent of the Lord Advocate. The Court has in these cases complete jurisdiction. This power has ...
-Sanitary Law of Scotland. Part 3
Government Board under the before mentioned section. Three of these related to slaughter-houses, two to water-supply, two to the drainage of houses, and one dealt with the cleansing of common stairs, ...
-Sanitary Law of Scotland. Part 4
Persons engaged in washing and mangling clothes may be required to furnish a list of the names and addresses of their customers to the Local Authority, the Authority making a small payment for the sa...
-Appendix I. Specific Gravity And Absorbent Capacity Of Building-Stones Compiled From The Builder By The Editor
No. DESCRIPTION OF STONE Specific Gravity Specific Gravity of Particles ARSORITION OF WATER PER CEST IN 1 Sec. 1 Min. 20 Mins. 1 Day 1 Week. ...
-Appendix II. Notes On Some Recent Inventions. By The Editor
In a work like this, the publication of which is extended over a somewhat long series of months, it is impossible for all the contributors to bring their treatises up to the date of the issue of the l...
-Notes On Some Recent Inventions. By The Editor. Continued
Burn Brothers' patent expanding drain-stopper deserves mention for its simplicity and other advantages. It consists of an india-rubber tube or cylinder with air-pump, and canvas bags of various sizes ...









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