This section is from the book "The Dogs Of Great Britain, America, And Other Countries. Their Breeding, Training, and Management in Health and Disease", by John Henry Walsh (Stonehenge). Also available from Amazon: The Dogs Of Great Britain, America And Other Countries.
The incisors are somewhat remarkable in shape, having three lobules at their edges resembling a fleur-de-lis (Figs. 43-44). Next to these come the canine teeth or tusks, and then the molars, which vary in form considerably. In the upper jaw, in front, are three sharp and cutting teeth, which Cuvier calls false molars; then a tooth with two cutting lobes; and lastly two flat teeth, or true molars. In the under jaw, the first four molars on each side are false, or cutters; then an intermediate one, with the posterior part flat; and lastly two tubercular teeth, or true molars. As the incisors are worn away and the dog becomes old, the lobules on the edges wear away and are flattened (see Figs. 45 and 46). The teeth are developed in two sets; the first, called milk-teeth, showing themselves through the gums about a fortnight or three weeks after birth, and lasting until the fifth or sixth month, when they arc displaced by the permanent set, the growth of which is accompanied by a degree of feverishness, which is often mistaken for distemper.
The dog's teeth should be beautifully white, if he is healthy and well reared, and until the third year there should be no deposit of tartar upon them, but after that time they are always coated with this substance at the roots, more or less, according to the feeding and state of health.
The fore feet are generally provided with five toes, and the hind with four, all furnished with strong nails that are not retractile. The inner toe on the fore feet is more or less rudimental, and is called the dew-claw; while there is also sometimes present in the hind foot a claw in the same situation still more rudimental, inasmuch as there is often no bony connexion with the metatarsal bone. This also is called the dew-claw, when present.