Colour, in bulk, chocolate-brown; viewed in a test-tube, bright red, transparent, somewhat thicker than water; a small amount of granular matter visible in suspension. Specific gravity 1.015. To test-paper it gave a distinctly alkaline reaction. On the addition of nitric acid there was no effervescence; on being boiled a flocculent precipitate of albumen was thrown down. A portion of urine was taken and tested by the guaiacum test previously employed for the healthy urine, when a beautiful blue coloration was produced, indicating the presence of blood. A portion of blood from the same animal afforded the same reaction. The total solids were equal to 30.36 parts per 1000, and were of a bright-red hue, due to the presence of the colouring matter of the blood, and were estimated according to Neubauer's process. The urea was estimated by Russell and West's process. The ash or total saline matter was found to be equal to 4.61 parts per 1000. The ash contained a very large amount of iron, probably derived from the constituents of the blood. The ammonia was estimated by Schlosing's method, and found to be equal to •0039453 parts of urea per 1000.

Proportion Of Chief Constituents In 1000 Parts

Water ...

.. 969.64

Urea

.. 11.59

Ash ...............

.. 4.61

Hippuric Acid ... ...

Extractives ... ...

Blood and other matters

.. 14.16

1000.00

From a full consideration of all the facts and circumstances which his investigation had revealed, he was constrained to look upon the term "Azoturia" as a misnomer which could not be sustained in any sense whatever.

Causes

The immediate cause of the disease is in some way connected with good living, and the blood has been stated to be surcharged with nitrogenous matter. This is very likely to be the case, but there is no scientific proof of the truth of the proposition. That a change is induced in the blood by a short period of work after two or three days' rest is true, and whatever that change may be it is marked by an escape of albumen and colouring-matter of the blood with the urine.

Symptoms

The attack is usually very sudden; the subject may all at once become dead lame behind, as if from a broken limb, or severe injury to the loin; the muscles of the quarter are spasmodically contracted and hard, the animal breaks out into a profuse sweat, and the breathing becomes hurried and difficult. There is great discoloration of the urine, which may be of a dark-red or even porter colour. Sometimes there is difficulty in staling, when it becomes necessary to empty the bladder by means of the catheter. In a short time the animal falls, and is unable to rise. While on the ground he fights convulsively with the fore-limbs, and raises his head to his side as if suffering abdominal pain. The membranes of the eyes and nose are intensely reddened, the pulse is quick and full, and the temperature increased.

Treatment

A bold dose of aloes should be promptly administered, and, if possible, the animal should be slung. This is one of the few diseases in which some veterinary surgeons advise bleeding; no doubt the readiest way to reduce any deleterious matter which the blood may contain. A sack containing a large quantity of hot bran or other poultice completely covering the loins gives relief to the cramped muscles, and facilitates the action both of skin and kidneys. Enemas of warm water should be thrown into the rectum. When aloes have acted freely diuretics should follow, preferably spirit of nitrous ether, as being stimulating and sustaining. Should the convulsive movements of the limbs and general excitement be considerable, a dose of chloral hydrate should be given, and repeated if necessary. If there is not a free passage of urine the catheter should be used, and the water drawn off from time to time as may be required. Soap liniment, with plenty of friction, may be applied over the loins and quarters where rigidity of the muscles exists. The diet should be low, and of a laxative character. Many horses remain crippled for a considerable period after the acute symptoms have passed away, and some never recover the complete use of their hind-quarters. The result of the disease is to cause rapid wasting of the muscles of the croup and thigh, and this must be met by a long run at grass, with blisters to the part, and the daily administration of nerve tonics. All cases of this kind demand attention from a qualified veterinarian. These symptoms are such as are commonly seen in the more acute cases, but there are others in which the urine does not become discoloured nor does the animal display those acute symptoms of lameness here described. In these cases the horse is indisposed, with slight lameness in one of the legs, and until the urine has been examined there is nothing to indicate the nature of the malady from which he suffers.

Cells of Liver of Horse affected with Haemo globinuria.

Fig. 211. - Cells of Liver of Horse affected with Haemo-globinuria.

Section of Kidney of Horse affected with Haemo globinuria.

Fig. 212. - Section of Kidney of Horse affected with Haemo-globinuria.

a, Glomerulo-nephritis. b, Renal Tube containing Granular Casts. c, Renal Tube, showing Degeneration of its Walls. D, Large Granular Cast from Urine Tube. E, Vein, showing Engorgement with Blood. F, Small Tubes of Henle (healthy).

A little acid applied to the urine reveals at once the nature of the disease by causing the coagulation and deposit of albumen.