Theodoric, a friend of the arts, who reigned in Italy from A.D. 493 to 525, endeavored to restore and preserve some of the ancient buildings; and erected others, the ruins of which are still seen at Verona and Ravenna. Simplicity and strength are the characteristics of the structures erected by him; they are, however, devoid of grandeur and elegance, or fine proportions. These are properly of the Gothic style; by some called the old Gothic, to distinguish it from the pointed Gothic.

9. - The Lombards, who ruled in Italy from A.D. 568, had no taste for architecture nor respect for antiquities. Accordingly, they pulled down the splendid monuments of classic architecture which they found standing, and erected in their stead huge buildings of stone which were greatly destitute of proportion, elegance, or utility - their characteristics being scarcely anything more than stability and immensity combined with ornaments of a puerile character. Their churches were decorated with rows of small columns along the cornice of the pediment, small doors and windows with circular heads, roofs supported by arches having arched buttresses to resist their thrust, and a lavish display of incongruous ornaments. This kind of architecture is called the Lombard style, and was employed in the seventh century in Pavia, the chief city of the Lombards; at which city, as also at many other places, a great many edifices were erected in accordance with its peculiar forms.

10. - The Byzantine Architects, of Byzantium, Constantinople, erected many spacious edifices; among which are included the cathedrals of Bamberg, Worms, and Mentz, and the most ancient part of the minster at Strassburg; in all of these they combined the classic styles with the crude Lombardian. This style is called the Lombard-Byzantine. To the last style there were afterwards added cupolas similar to those used in the East, together with numerous slender pillars with elaborate capitals, and the many minarets which are the characteristics of the proper Byzantine, or Oriental style.