Internal doors should be at least 2 feet 9 inches wide, and 6 feet 6 inches high. A usual opening is 3 feet, or 3 feet 6 inches.
A common rule for proportioning the size of doors is to add 4 feet to the width to obtain the height. Thus a door 2 feet 9 inches would be 6 feet 9 inches high. Very large rooms are sometimes connected or thrown into one by doors 8 feet or more in width, and 8 feet to 10 feet high.
Vitruvius gives as a ride for internal doors that their height, to give the best architectural effect, should be i that of the room.
Entrance doors vary in width from 3 feet to 5 feet. "When a door is more than 3 feet 6 inches wide it should as a rule be hung in two halves (" hung folding "), by which arrangement it requires less space into which to open, and the leaves are lighter.
1 Sc. Fielded panel.
Doors should, as a rule, open inwards from a person entering the room, and they should be so placed as to conceal as much as possible of the room when they are partly open.
Doors are described as right or left handed according to the direction in which they open. A door which opens inward towards the right, as in Fig. 500, is called a "right-handed" door, while one opening inwards towards the left, as in Fig. 533, is a left-handed door. Locks are made right and left handed to suit the arrangement of the doors.
The following letters are used to mark the parts mentioned, in the figures of this section relating to doors: -
Doors receive their distinctive names according to the nature of their construction.
A Ledged Door1 is the simplest kind of door made, and is used only for temporary or inferior purposes.
The very commonest consist of vertical boards butted against one another, and connected by two or three horizontal pieces called "ledges" 2 nailed across the back.
The ledges should be fixed on the inside of the door, which is, in Figs, 497, 498, shown to open outwards. The rebate in the frame is here shown of a depth only equal to the thickness of the boards or door itself, the ledges being cut off at the ends so as not to fit into the frame.
In some cases, however, the ledges are made of a length equal to the full width of the door, and recesses are cut out in the frame beyond the rebate to receive them where they occur.
Fig. 497. Ledged Door.
1 Sc. Barred Door. 2 Sc. Bars or Cross Bars.
3 A "Proper-Ledged Door" is one in which the hoarding is wrought, ploughed, tongued, and beaded. The term is becoming obsolete.
The arrangement here shown would be objectionable for a door of any importance, for even when locked it can at any time be opened by unscrewing the hinges from the outside.
Fig. 498. Ledged Door.
If such a door be required to be very secure, it should have hinges on the inside,1 as in Figs. 499, 500, or be hung with external hook and eye hinges fixed with bolts and nuts on the inside (see Figs. 501, 503), which cannot be removed when the door is locked.
A Ledged and Braced Door has braces diagonally across the back in addition to the horizontal ledges, as shown in Fig. 499.
The ledges and braces shown in this figure are bevelled or beaded, and the boarding is ploughed, tongued, and beaded on both sides.
The braces should be fixed so as to incline downwards toward the side 011 which the door is hung.
The beads on the inside of the door are often omitted, but are just as much required there as on the outside, to conceal the joints when the boards shrink.
The frame generally has a bead run round its inner edge to conceal the joints between it and the door.
Fig. 499. Inside Elevation of Ledged and Braced Boor.
The door illustrated in Figs. 499, 500 is arranged to open inwards, the rebate in the frame being made of a depth equal to the united thicknesses of the boarding and ledges, as shown in Fig. 500.
1 The hinges and latch of the common ledged door are dotted in Fig. 497 to show that they are on the outside.
Sometimes the frame is rebated to a depth only sufficient to receive the boarding alone, in which case the hinges are fixed upon blocks attached to the frame, the surfaces of the blocks being flush with those of the ledges.
A Framed and Braced Door.1 - This door consists of a frame strengthened by a middle or lock rail and diagonal braces, the edges of which are stop-chamfered to give them a light appearance, as shown in the internal elevation Fig. 502.
Fig. 501. External Elevation.
Fig. 502. Internal Elevation.
Fig. 503. Framed and Braced Door.
The ends of the braces are tenoned into the styles and rails as shown; the upper ends are frequently made to abut partially upon the styles, but this has a tendency to force them off the rails. The braces should therefore be connected at the upper end with the rails only, as shown in Fig. 502. The lower ends may abut partially upon the hanging style, and they are sometimes kept entirely clear of the rails.
The braces and lock rails are thinner than the remainder of the framing by the substance of the boarding, which lies against them and is nailed to them.
1 Sometimes called Framed, Ledged, and Braced.
In external doors the bottom rail is generally covered by the boarding, so as to be invisible from the outside. This enables the rain to get clear away, instead of being caught by the bottom rail.
In Fig. 502 the framing is stop-chamfered, and the boarding ploughed, tongued, and V-jointed on both sides. The door opens outwards, and is hung with hook and eye hinges. An enlarged section of part of this door is given in Fig. 487, p. 237.
A Framed and Ledged Door is like that shown in Fig. 502, without the braces.
Panelled Doors consist of a framework of narrow pieces of equal thickness put together with mortise and tenon joints, and grooved on the inside edges to receive the panels.
Fig. 504 shows the elevation of a four-panelled door, and Fig. 507 that of a door with six panels.
Figs. 508, 509, 510, 511 are horizontal sections taken through the panels identified in elevation by the same letters. Figs. 5090, 509& are parts of Fig. 509 enlarged.
The horizontal bars of the framing are called "Bails," and the vertical bars "Styles." The centre style is also called a "Munting." 1
In a six-panelled door the uppermost horizontal bar is the Top Bail, the next below is the Frieze Bail, the next the Lock (or Middle) Bail,2 and the lowest the Bottom Bail.5
The two highest panels are the Frieze Banels, the two next the Middle Banels, and the lowest the Bottom or Bower Bands.
The Top Bail and Frieze Bail are generally of the same width as the Styles and Hunting (about 4 1/2 inches); the Lock and Bottom Bails are about twice, or frequently rather more than twice, as wide as the others.
The centre of the lock rail should be about 2 feet 6 inches above the ground, so that the lock may be at a convenient height for the hand.
In a four-panelled door there are no Frieze Banels. The uppermost panels are the Upper or Top Panels. The Frieze Bail is also omitted, the other parts being named in the same way as in the six-panelled door.
The number, relative size, form, and position of the panels is varied in different doors according to taste and to the purpose for which they are intended.
1 Or Muntin, or Mounting. Sc. Mounter. 2 Sc. Belt Bail. 3 Sc. Sole Bail.
1 It will be understood with, reference to the above figures and those on Plate XL
In six-panelled doors the frieze panels are often of oblong form, being wider than their height, and the four lower panels nearly equal in size to one another (see Fig. 513). Sometimes the small panels are placed in the middle of the door.