Windows, especially those of ground-floors, are frequently fitted with shutters for security and warmth at night.

Inside Shutters are fixed on the inner side of the wall of a building.

Outside Shutters are fixed on the outer side of the wall.

Inside Shutters are hung in several different ways, which may be generally arranged under two heads.

1. Folding

In leaves, hinged together and folding back into recesses or " boxings " prepared for them.

2. Sliding

In leaves, sliding up and down, and counterbalanced by weights in the same way as sliding sashes; or sliding laterally upon rollers in and out of recesses formed for them at the sides of the window.

Folding Shutters

A recess or boxing for these is formed in the space between the inside lining of the sash frame and the framed ground at the back of the architrave.

The back of this recess is plastered in common work, but in better work it is covered by a lining, called the "back lining."

This back lining has one end tongued into the inside lining of the sash frame, and the other housed or tongued into the ground behind the architrave.

In Fig. 177 the architrave is fixed to a finished ground into which the back lining is grooved.

As the interior of the boxing is exposed to view when the shutters are closed, the back of the ground is sometimes covered, for the sake of appearance, by a return lining such as that marked I in Fig. 178.

The leaf which is exposed to view during the day may be framed and panelled like the doors of the room, and is called the shutter, the remaining leaves are called the back flaps.

The back flaps, if they exceed 6 or 7 inches in width, are framed, but may be of a plainer description of panelling, or sometimes not panelled at all.

In most of the accompanying illustrations the shutter and flaps are shown as framed square on the outer side and bead flush on the inner side. The inner side is often finished bead butt for the sake of economy; or the flaps are often framed square on both sides, or moulded on one or both sides according to the class of work.

1 Sc. Backfolds - Closers.

In the very best work, however, the shutters and flaps are all made the same on both sides, so that when closed they will all appear alike, whether seen from the interior of the room or through the glass from the outside.

In hanging shutters the knuckle of the hinges of the front leaf should be about half-an-inch from the inner angle of the inside lining - so that the whole width from one extremity of the shutters to the other, when they are open, is an inch more than the width of the window opening.

The flaps are connected by small "back-flap" hinges fixed as shown, or by butt hinges attached to the edges of the flaps. In the former case the shutters, when folded back, are kept apart by nearly the thickness of the hinge, and there is room for an iron bar or other fastening to hang between them.

Shutter And One Flap

When the opening is narrow, or the wall of considerable thickness, the shutter may be hung in two leaves, as in Figs. 176, 177.

Fig. 176 is an interior elevation of a window with sliding sashes fitted with shutters hung in two leaves. The shutter and flap to the right of the elevation are closed, the other shutter and flap being folded back into the boxings, as shown in the half-plan Fig. 177.

Fig. 176. Scale,  inch=l foot.

Fig. 176. Scale, inch=l foot.

Fig. 177. Scale, 1 inch = l foot.

Fig. 177. Scale, 1 inch = l foot.

The shutter is moulded on the side exposed to view during the day; the back of this shutter and that of the back flap (which are seen together on the inside of the room when the shutters are closed) are bead flush, while the front or outer side of the back flap is framed square.

In this and some of the following figures the dotted lines show the position of the shutters and flaps while in the act of being closed.

Shutter And Two Flaps

When a window opening is wide, or the wall in which it is formed is not very thick, there is not so much room for shutters in proportion to their width, and they have to be folded into a greater number of leaves in order that they may take up less room in the thickness of the wall.

Fig. 17 8 is the half-plan of a window with the same opening as that in Fig. 177, but in a wall only 1 foot 6 inches, instead of 2 feet thick.

Fig. 178. Scale, 1 inch=l foot.

Fig. 178. Scale, 1 inch=l foot.

The shutter in this case is necessarily folded into three leaves ; the two back flaps being very narrow are not framed.

The lining, I, at the back of the ground, g, is only to preserve a neat appearance within the boxings when they are empty; it may be omitted and the back lining of the boxing prolonged to meet the back of the ground.

There are many methods of arranging folding shutters, which vary considerably according to the length of shutters required - and the space available for them to fold into.

One method of gaining room for shutters is to make the boxings project into the room, as shown in Fig. 179, or when the windows are separated by very narrow piers, the shutters may be arranged as in Fig. 180.

Fig. 179. Scale, 1 inch = l foot.

Fig. 179. Scale, 1 inch = l foot.

Fig. 180. Scale, 1 inch = l foot.

Fig. 180. Scale, 1 inch = l foot.

Where the masonry cannot be made to extend inwards far enough to form a support for the lining at the back of the shutters, such support is afforded by wooden brackets fixed to the back of the pier and extending inwards as far as may be required.

Another arrangement for shutters to cover a window in a thin wall is shown in Fig. 181.

Fig. 181. Scale, 1 inch = l foot.

Fig. 181. Scale, 1 inch = l foot.

In this case the larger flap of the shutter folds back upon the inner side of the wall, and is exposed to view, being connected with the boxing of the window by a short flap which forms the jamb lining. The elbow of the wall is lined, in order to present a neat appearance when the shutters are closed.

This is rather an old-fashioned arrangement, but very useful in some situations.