This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
64. Strictly, these are not ashlar, but as more or less dressing is necessary on them, they are here mentioned.
In most of the larger cities, the building regulations require bond stones in brick piers of certain sizes. Only strong stones, such as granite, bluestone, and hard trap rock, should be used, and should be cut the full size of the pier. The course of brick underneath should be brought to an exact level to receive the stone; otherwise, the weight above may cause it to crack, or become displaced.
65. Templets are the bearing stones placed under the ends of beams and girders, and serve to distribute the weight more evenly on the wall. They should always be made of a hard and tough stone; the usual rule is that the thickness of the stone should be one-third of the smallest surface dimension, except when very large stones are used; but the least thickness should be 4 inches. It is better to have the templets too large than too small. When a wooden girder rests on a templet, it is well to place a flat stone above the end of the girder, so that the wall will rest on the stone and not on the wood. This is advisable for the reason that when the wood shrinks the settlement may cause cracks in the wall.