This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol4: Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
Gnarled Oak. The ground for this wood varies according to the exact tint required. It is usually composed of white lead and yellow ocher, or Venetian red and yellow ocher, and various tints resulting from their admixture. Orange chrome in different proportions with white lead may, however, be used; for, the tone of the whole work in graining is, in a very great degree, influenced by the color of the ground. The ground in this case, as in that of bird's-eye maple, should be rather oily, but the cissing must be done, in this instance, with whiting and water, instead of beer.
The graining color is to be made of Vandyke brown, mixed entirely with water, the work being rubbed in with a tool and mottler (Fig. 23). Next, with a tool dipped in a very dark mixture of the graining color, dab patches on the wet work where the knots are required, then, with a damp, coarse sponge, dab the dark knots well over, and with another piece of sponge, draw around the knots connecting them into groups.
In commencing the overgraining next day, pass over the whole with the same color as before, but very much thinner, and with a softener, draw the color into groups of knots; next take out some lights and nicely soften the whole in every direction, also with the badger softener (Fig. 25). In first-class work before overgraining, dip a small sable pencil (Fig. 20), in Vandyke brown and draw fine free veins from each of the groups of knots to the others, or to such spots as will permit a free play of the lines. By using water only.
in mixing the graining color, the grainer is enabled to over-grain, without previously applying a coat of varnish to bind the work, which would be necessary before he could apply a second wash, had beer been used in the first color. When dry, two coats of pale oak varnish are to be applied.
Satin Wood. The ground is to be composed of white lead, just tinted with chrome yellow, raw sienna, and yellow ocher, the cissing to be done with whiting and beer. The graining colors may be made of either of the following pigments: middle chrome and drop black, Vandyke brown, raw sienna and Vandyke brown or York brown; the work to be rubbed in level with a tool and the mottler. A rather coarse sponge is then wet with beer and drawn down the work, so as to leave rather broad streaks running in a slightly wavy or oblique direction, and softened with the badger softener. Next, with a clean, moist, camel's-hair mottler, the edges of the streaks are worked down with a jerky movement, so as to give that varied and fanciful appearance so much admired in the natural wood.
The overgraining color is to be mixed in beer, and composed either of tints of Vandyke brown, and black, or other pigments of similar character, but differing from those used in the ground. The heart must be done with a small sable pencil, the work being slightly brushed up with the badger. The rest of the overgraining is to be done with a sable tube overgrainer (Fig. 21), or with a sable flat overgrainer (Fig. 22), the hairs of which have been separated with a comb.
124. Of mahogany there are many shades. The following are, however, the colors generally used, varied according to taste, or darkened by the addition of pigments of a deeper hue. The ground color is to be mixed of Venetian red, yellow ocher, and white lead; orange chrome may be, however, substituted for yellow ocher, the cissing being done with whiting and beer. The graining color is to be made of Vandyke brown and black, burnt sienna, with black or with Vandyke brown, to suit the ground.
The color which is to be mixed with beer is rubbed in dark with the tool and mottler; then with a clean and moist camel's-hair mottler, it is carried out according to the method described in relation to satinwood; or, to produce a feather or curl, the color is drawn with the badger from the side, towards the middle of the panel. Much taste and skill are required in the next process, which consists in working up the feather or curl. This is done by gathering up, as it were, the grain from each side to culminate in the middle, working towards a point which must become more and more elongated. The process and effect are difficult to describe, but the workman is advised to adopt nature as his model. When once he understands the result to be obtained, and the means at his disposal, he will, with a small amount of perseverance and industry, soon discover the method of working by which he may best achieve his purpose. The curl and mottling of satinwood are so much like those of mahogany, that the same manipulative process can be adopted for both, with this exception, that the pattern in the former is smaller than that in the latter.
The overgraining color in mahogany is made of Vandyke brown, with a little crimson lake. The tools.are the hog's-hair or sable overgrainer and a small overgraining comb. In a curl or feather, the overgraining must follow the direction of the curl, rising from the center and becoming gradually more pointed until it is lost in the general mottling of the wood; if the wood is to be mottled only, the overgraining must run in the direction of the mottling. Should the work, when thus far finished, be found too light in color, or not sufficiently rich, it maybe varnished or megilped-the megilp being made of boiled oil and turpentine. When this is dry, a mixture of brown lake and black, or burnt sienna and black, or Vandyke brown and crimson lake, may be rubbed over it, until the required tint is obtained. The whole is to be softened, and, when dry, again varnished.