This section is from the book "Building Construction And Superintendence", by F. E. Kidder. Also available from Amazon: Building Construction And Superintendence.
Although the mouldings used in connection with the interior or exterior finish of the better class of buildings are usually made in accordance with the architect's full-size details, and hence are seldom exactly alike in any two buildings, yet there are certain shapes that are so commonly used as to have specific names, while class names have been given to mouldings used for particular purposes, irrespective of the shape of the members. As these names are in common use among builders and architects, and are often used in the specifications, it seems advisable to define them before entering upon a description of the finish.
Names of Mouldings* - In Fig. 213 are shown sections of such mouldings as are used with so little variation that a name may be given to them. These mouldings may vary in size +, but the shape is always practically the same.
Most of these terms require no further explanation. The quirk is not a moulding proper, but is the little groove formed at the side of a moulding that is sunk below the surface, being most commonly used with the bead or torus. Beads are extensively used in interior finishing, often with the quirk, to conceal a joint. When several of them are used together in the centre of a board they are called "reeding." The term "fillet" is used to designate a narrow, flat surface - usually not more than \ inch wide - on each side of a moulding or separating mouldings. Fluting may have either rounded or square channels, the rounded being generally understood. Moulded nosings may be of almost any shape, but are generally rounded on top. Besides these names which indicate the shape of the moulding there are also two terms - "solid" moulding and " sprung " moulding - which apply to mouldings of different outlines.
*All of the moulding* used in connection with the Five Orders of Architecture hare specific names, but many of them are practically obsolete, and only such names are given here as are in common use.
+The mouldings shown in Figs. 213 and 215 are drawn from one-third to one~half of the more common size.
A solid moulding is one in which the wood fills the space behind the moulding proper, usually to a right angle. A sprung moulding is one worked from a board or thin piece so that the back is parallel to a line tangent to the face, and when the moulding is set in its proper position against a board there will be a space behind it. The crown mouldings shown and the larger cove moulding are "sprung mouldings," while the others are solid mouldings. Bed mouldings (see Fig. 215).are usually sprung mouldings unless quite small. Besides mouldings proper, there are also the bevel, chamfer and rebate, shown in Fig. 214, that are extensively used in joinery.
Kinds of Mouldings. - These are mouldings used for distinct purposes; they may, and usually do, vary much in their profile, but the
Fig. 215 general shape is usually about the same for each kind of moulding. Those terms which are generally recognized by carpenters and mill-men are illustrated in Fig. 215.
A band mould is one that is nailed or glued to the face of other parts of the finish. A bed mould is one used in the angle formed by a soffit and vertical surface. Raised mouldings are used principally in connection with panel work and are almost always of the general shape shown. Flush panel mouldings are made in a variety of pat-.terns, but one with a quirk next to the stile or rail is best, as it will not show the effects of slight shrinkage.
The base mould, A, square at the bottom, may be used when a plain board is used for the base. If the base is moulded a rebated base mould is preferable. Base mouldings should be comparatively thin at the top so that they may be sprung to fit the plastering if the latter is not perfectly straight.
Mouldings are said to be "planted on" when they are nailed or glued to the face of a wider moulding or board. Band mouldings are always planted on. The term "stuck moulding" is sometimes used to designate a moulding that is worked on the edge of a board or plank, but the work "stuck" more commonly refers to the making of the moulding, i. e., passing through the machine.
Stock Mouldings. - A great many mouldings are carried in stock by the larger lumber dealers, and a book is published by a central pub* lishing company giving the full-size sections of the mouldings usually kept on hand.
Most of the mouldings shown in Fig. 213, and those marked S in Fig. 215, are stock mouldings. When only small quantities of mouldings are needed it is cheaper to use stock patterns, and they can usually be made to answer for the exterior finish of moderate priced houses. The speculative builder uses them altogether as a rule. For the interior finish and on the exterior of the better class of buildings the architect usually prefers to design the mouldings himself, and in such case he should specify that " all mouldings are to be stuck according to the full-size details."
Price. - Mouldings are universally sold by the lineal foot, the price for the same wood varying with the number of square inches in the cross section of the piece from which the moulding is worked.
Hence in writing specifications for estimates, if the full-size details are not to be furnished at that time, the architect should specify the size of the wood from which the various mouldings are to be worked, and then the contractor can estimate as accurately as if he had the profile, as the latter does not usually affect the cost.
When several mouldings are used together each piece is called a member, and the number of members with their size should be specified.
Almost any moulding that the architect chooses to design can be made by machinery, but those which are "under cut" are more difficult to work than those that are not.