This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
In selecting double-acting butts, always get a large size capable of doing the work easily, as the jar on a light butt as the door passes the closed point will quickly rack a light appliance into a useless condition. In house building, the use of double-acting springs is usually confined to china-closet doors, and in public buildings to entrance doors. In a very large number of cases a little study will devise means of substituting simpler appliances. For a public building, for example, two single-acting doors can be used- one for entering and the other for outgoing traffic.
Blind Hinges. Outside blind hinges are important items, especially in rural dis-tricts in the North and throughout the South, where blinds are a necessity. [The usual cast-iron gravity blind hinge (Fig. 22) is a very cheap and unsatisfactory fixture. The smallest jar or blow will break hinges of this type. A heavy wind, catching the blind, will often slam it with sufficient force to break the window glass. It is much better to procure some type of wrought-iron hinge (Fig. 23), and a separate appliance to hold the blind open (Fig. 24). This type of hinge is also rather ornamental, the part fastened to the face of the blind being in the true sense of the term a hinge-plate.
Fig. 23. Wrought-iron Blind Hinge.
Fig. 24. Device to Hold Blind Open.
A blind adjuster is indicated in Fig. 25. There are several appliances on the market which accomplish the same result - that is, holding the blinds secure at any angle up to about 60° from the sash plane. It is try desirable to install these fixtures -which are strong, and which hold the blind firmly - where blinds with fixed slats rather than rolling slats are used. If a substantial blind is desired, the fixed slats should always be used; the light passing blinds opened only two or three inches is very agreeable.
Fig. 25. Blind Adjuster.
Fig. 26. Awning Blund Hinge in Use.
There is also on the market an awning blind hinge. This permits the blinds to swing in the usual way, and, in addition, to be clamped together; and with the tops against the house, the bottom can be set out from one to two feet like an awning (Fig. 26), giving a delightful soft light inside. But to accomplish all that is desired, it appears to be necessary to make these hinges delicate and light; and a little hard usage or a heavy wind will break them, so that the greatest care must always be exercised when operating these blinds, to leave them secure; and generally it may be said that such fixtures are unsuitable for wide or heavy blinds.
As has been stated, the hinge is the most important item of hardware from the standpoint of necessity or convenience; but it is apparently the general sentiment of both sellers and buyers, that the lock is the central figure. The manufacturer puts more thought on it than on any other appliance; and in selecting hardware, the customer generally devotes most of his attention to it. Perhaps the reason for this discrimination is that the lock symbolizes protection and defense; the term symbolize is here used because, on an analysis, the lock is rather a symbol than a real physical protection.
With the advancement in the art of lock-making, the knowledge of methods of nullifying the safeguard afforded by locks has also advanced, so that there are no locks to-day which cannot with more or less ease be operated by unauthorized persons. When elaborate and intricate locks are used, it is often ridiculous to see on what flimsy doors they are placed, and also what delicate and flimsy locks are placed on ponderous doors.
A brief study of the conditions usually surrounding the placing of locks will show the absurdity of expending large sums of money and of buying intricate locks with an idea of obtaining protection thereby. Under ordinary conditions, the moral effect of the lock is enough to afford protection; but when the experienced cracksman or determined burglar seeks to obtain entrance, neither moral effects nor mechanical appliances are a bar.
The object of the foregoing is to set forth the province which a lock should be considered as filling - or rather to show the province it does not fill - so that in buying this most expensive of hardware, funds needed elsewhere may not be expended in intricate mechanism of doubtful protective value.
Locks are either of the rim type or of the mortise type. The rim lock is fastened on the face of the door (Fig. 27). It should be used only when protection is desired from the outside, as, for instance, on store or office entrance doors, and possibly outside house-doors. Locks of this type are usually operated by means of a key from the outside and a thumb-piece from the inside; if of a type requiring a key for both sides, they are no protection on the side on which they are visible, as the removal of one screw will usually allow of sufficient change of position of the lock to release the bolt Rim locks are not ornamental, are generally made of ordinary cast-iron, and their use should be avoided in the better grades of work.
The mortise lock is set into the face of the door, so that only the faceplate, with bolt and latch, shows on the edge when open (Fig. 28). Inasmuch as it is necessary to cut out the woodwork of the door to place a lock of this type, the first consideration in its selection should be one of size. The smallest and thinnest lock which will serve the purpose should be chosen.