This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The Study Of Architectural Drawing Includes Preparatory Work In Use Of Instruments, Mechanical Drawing, The Working Out Of Problems In Descriptive Geometry, Casting Shadows, And Perspective, Freehand Drawing, Lettering And Rendering In Pen And Ink, Wash And Color, The Study Of The Orders And Their Use In Design, And The Carrying Out Of These Designs In Working Drawings. All These Must Be Carefully Studied In Detail. In This Book We Consider Some Of The General Principles Of Architectural Drawing, Including Rendering In Wash And Color.
FRAGMENTS FROM ROMAN TEMPLE AT CORI, ITALY. One of the most interesting examples of architectural rendering in existence.
Original drawing by Emanuel Brune. Reproduced by permission of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Instruments and Materials. The study of mechanical drawing has acquainted the student with the use of the ordinary drawing instruments and materials. Those required for architectural work are substantially the same.
Pencils. Soft pencils are used; a draftsman cannot have advanced far in ability before becoming familiar with the B B pencil, which will draw any line, from the finest to the coarsest, and give the greatest freedom for all kinds of work, from sketching to full-size details.
In architects' offices it is an almost invariable rule for the new-fledged student and young draftsman to use hard pencils - "nails," as they are called by more experienced men. A soft pencil gives a much more agreeable expression of ideas on paper than a hard pencil; the latter should be reserved for mechanical work. The draftsman must not allow himself to become less accurate as he gains greater freedom, and the use of a soft pencil gives no excuse for a careless or slovenly drawing. H H, F and B B will be found the most useful grades. For laying out work, H H is often used.
Erasers. The noted architect, H. H. Richardson, said that "an eraser is a draftsman's best friend." For work on detail paper, a firm rubber is best, but a soft rubber is most serviceable for removing ordinary pencil marks from all kinds of paper, including the thin tracing papers, without injury to the surface. It will be found that the eraser can be frequently used in studying outlines, and it is the custom for rapid draftsmen to let the pencil lines run where they will, trusting to the eraser to make the outline true. A large size ink eraser will be found easier on the hands than a small one. In making erasures a typewriter's shield of metal with different sizes of openings, corresponding to the erasures to be made, called in draftsman's parlance, the "office goat," is useful. Holes can be cut in cardboard or detail paper for this purpose.
For some of the text and several of the illustrations in Architectural Drawing the French work, Elements et Theorie de 1'Architecture, Vol. I., by Guadet, has been drawn on freely. The four volumes of this work by Guadet cannot be too highly recommended. Even those not familiar with the French language will find it an excellent reference work on account of the numerous useful illustrations it contains.
Set of Instruments. Good instruments are advisable, as it is hard enough to make good drawings, even with the best. Compasses with pencil and pen points and extension legs; large and small dividers, bow-pen and bow-pencil, and two ruling pens, form the usual equipment of the architectural draftsman's instrument case. Besides these a simple form of proportional dividers will be found very useful, especially in changing drawings from one scale to another, and also when it is desired to translate a rough sketch into a definite scale, preserving the proportions of the sketch. A small protractor will be sufficient for the rare occasions when an architect lays off angles to a given number of degrees.
Beam compasses are useful, though many offices have only long straight edges and carpenters' clamps for this purpose. Sometimes a taut string will serve the purpose where perfect accuracy is not required, or two points on a straight edge may be taken, one point being held with one hand, while a curve is struck from another point by a pencil held in the other hand.
Drawing Boards. It is necessary to have two drawing boards, one a "Double Elephant" size, 28 X 42 inches, to accommodate paper of a size called "Double Elephant," which is 27 X 40 inches, thus allowing 1/2 inch at the sides and an inch at the ends; the other board 23 X 32 inches, to accommodate the size of paper called "Imperial," which is 22 X 30 inches. It will be found convenient also to have a small "Half Imperial" board 23 X 16 inches in size. These boards should have a straight grained cleat at each end, or should be entirely surrounded with a framework of hard wood, having soft wood in the center. Cherry makes a good hard wood for the frames or ends, and pine or white wood for center. In many offices the boards are made entirely of pine or white wood, but it will be found preferable to have better made boards, and to take good care of them, keeping them square. If adjacent sides of the board make a true right-angle, the T-square can be used on these two sides, which is an advantage in drawing long lines. When the boards have cleats at the ends only, however, it is always necessary to use the T-square from the left-hand end only.
Triangles and T=Squares. There are T-squares to correspond to the size of the boards. They are usually made of straight, fine grained hard wood. The simplest form of fixed T-square will be found the most satisfactory for general office use. As even the best are apt to vary, it is a good idea to number every T-square in the office and note the number on commencing a drawing. If, however, the T-square is changed, and the new square does not line up with the old work, a thumb tack in the edge of the head next the drawing board may be used to bring the blade into line, as shown in Fig. 1. The drawing edge (upper edge) of a T-square should never be used as a straight edge for paper cutting.