This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Two triangles are required, one 30 degrees to 60 degrees, and one of 45 degrees. Triangles are made of wood, hard rubber or celluloid.
Materials for Wash=Drawings. For tinting, a nest of tinting saucers, brushes, a soft sponge, large blotters, a stick of India ink, a slate slab for grinding it, a half cake of carmine and a half tube of Prussian blue will make a good beginning.
Paper. Paper comes in certain conventional sizes. "Whatman's paper" is most easily obtained in two sizes, the "Imperial," 22X30inches, and "Double Elephant," 27 X 40 inches, and is a useful paper for all-around architectural work, being good for pencilling, inking in, and wash drawings; colors can be laid on it even after erasures have been made. The Whatman "hot-pressed" paper has a smooth surface and is generally used for fine pencil or ink drawings. The Whatman "cold-pressed " paper has a rough surface and good texture, and is useful for all-around work.
Tinted Papers. Gray or other colored papers are frequently employed, pencil or pen and ink being used for the lines and shadows, and chalk or Chinese white for the high lights. Pastels and water colors are used on special colored papers; "scratch papers" are those on which white is obtained by scratching through the colored surface of the paper. Some of these papers, including buff or manila detail paper, have already been fully described under the subject of mechanical drawing. The process of stretching paper is also there described.
Fig. 1. T-Square with Thumb Tack.
Tracing Paper. In architectural work a great deal of tracing paper is used. A cheap manila tracing paper is convenient for rough preliminary studies not intended to be preserved. "Alba," a white tough tracing paper, and "Economy," a cheaper form, are very good for pencil sketching and also for careful pencil drawings. Rowney's English tracing paper is very transparent, is good for accurate pencilling, and takes color, but becomes brittle with age; it is, however, the best paper for careful studies of architectural work. Bond paper which comes in sheets 20 X 28 inches, is very useful for working drawings of small frame houses, as the drawing can be inked-in and blue prints taken directly from this paper without the necessity of tracing.
Some offices make many of their details in black pencil on this paper and where work on different houses is similar, let blue prints of these details serve for each new building.
Tracing Cloth. Tracing cloth is used for important work where the tracing will be roughly used or where changes are likely to be made in the drawing. In drawing on tracing cloth, there are three ways of making the ink flow well: (1) The most common is to rub powdered chalk over the surface, dusting off the superfluous chalk; (2) Benzine applied with a towel will clean the cloth; (3) Oxgall, a preparation obtainable at any artists' materials store, may be mixed with the ink. Sometimes pencil drawings are made directly on the cloth, and after inking-in benzine is used to remove all pencil marks. As a rule, the rough side of the tracing cloth is used, but some draftsmen prefer to ink-in on the smooth side, thinking they can make a cleaner line, and then turn the cloth over to color the drawing on the rough side with water colors or crayons.
Scales. Scales for architectural work are like those used for mechanical drawing, one-quarter inch to the foot for working drawings, and three-quarter inch to the foot for details, being the customary scales used in American offices, though some offices use one-eighth inch to the foot, with one-half inch to the foot for details - the custom usually followed in England. It is customary to make full-size details of mouldings and of special constructive parts. Three-sixteenths inch to the foot is sometimes useful as a scale drawing, or in laying out stairs in section, as will he described later. This scale is also frequently used for exhibition drawings. One and one-half inch to the foot, one inch to the foot, and three inches to the foot, are also used. For the scale of three inches to the foot, the ordinary quarter-inch scale may be read as inches instead of feet, as one-quarter inch is one-twelfth of three inches. The three-quarter inch scale is the favorite among carpenters for the reason that the ordinary two-foot rule can be used on the drawings; as there are twelve-sixteenths of an inch in every three-quarters of an inch, each sixteenth of an inch on the rule represents one inch actual measurement. The inch scale is very popular for drawing mantels, interior finish, etc., where the total dimensions can be read directly from the two-foot rule, each inch being equal to the foot full size.
SKETCH FOR RESIDENCE OF MR. WALTER GERTS, GLENCOE, ILL.
Frank Lloyd Wright Architect Oak Park III
PLAN OF RESIDENCE FOR MR. WALTER GERTS, GLENCOE, ILL.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Oak Park, 111.
For Sketch of Exterior, See Opposite Page. Built In 1906.
Retroduced by permission of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The accompanying illustration of an architect's scale, Fig. 2, shows the usual divisions on a scale for ordinary architectural work.
Fig. 2. Architects' Scale.
A six-inch scale of this size is very convenient for ordinary measurements and a similar one eighteen inches or two feet long is useful for laying out larger work. This scale gives the full-size measurements in inches divided into sixteenths with the scales of sixteenths reading in the reverse order from zero up, so that the number can be read directly from a sixteenth scale or doubled for a thirty-second inch scale. The common quarter-inch and eighth-inch scales are given, as well as the half-inch and one-inch scales. The useful three-quarter inch scale is given with the three-sixteenths scale in reverse order.
The accompanying sketch, Fig. 3, shows how a scale may be used in laying out staircases in plan and section much more rapidly than is usual in architects' offices. The sketch shows the plan and section of a staircase at a scale of one-quarter of an inch to the foot, the staircase to be three feet six inches wide. The section shows that the floors are nine feet six inches between finished surfaces. As it is desirable to economize space, the stairs are to be laid out with about seven and one-half inches rise and eleven inches tread. Dividing nine feet six inches by seven and one-half, we find that fifteen risers will give us slightly over seven and one-half inches. To lay out fourteen treads - which locate the fifteen risers including the first and last - instead of spacing over fourteen treads, start from the first riser, lay off parallel to run of stairs in plan eleven feet on the quarter-inch scale; then draw a line perpendicular to the run of the stairs. Tip the scale until the zero coincides with the first tread and twelve coincides with the line just drawn. Each division of the quarter scale marked off as a scale of proportional parts will give us a series of points through which we can draw parallel lines which will locate the risers eleven inches apart. If it is found that the stairs do not arrive at the point desired, the scale can be tipped more or less and each tread decreased or increased. The same method can be followed for laying out the stairs in elevation.
Fig. 3. Use of Scales in Laying out Stairs.