This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The presumption is that the flutes were finished in place at the time the building was constructed. There are certain buildings which seems to prove this theory, such as the Temple of Apollo at Delos, where the channels are begun at the top and the bottom of the shaft and left unfinished.
Fig. 49. Development of Column Fluting.
The flutings of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders are generally twenty-four in number; each flute is separated by a small fillet, about one-third, or less, the width of the flute itself, which is practically a semicircle in section (F, Fig. 49). The shallow Doric flutings with sharp points or arrises between them, radically different from these semicircular flutings, should be considered as a distinctive feature of the Greek Doric column. They are invariably used in modern practice on any fluted example of this Order, although the Ionic system of fluting may sometimes be rightly used with the Roman Doric Order.
Comparison of Greek and Roman Orders. Reference to the cut entitled "Parallel of the Orders" (Fig. 50) will give more plainly the general proportions of the Greek Orders, and show something of the difference between the Greek and Roman examples in the use of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns. It may be understood that all the plates given as "Orders," when not specifically named, are intended as representative examples of each Order, of which in reality there may be many widely different existing remains. In Fig. 50, the types of Greek Orders of architecture are as taken from Asher Benjamin; and the Roman Orders are those as given by Vignola. It is readily seen from this figure that the so-called Roman Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns were derived from the earlier Greek forms, and that the Roman variety of each style is a comparatively direct growth from the original, even though it varies from it in many essentials.
System of Measurement for the "Order." It is necessary, in order to arrive at a proper comparison of the Order, to adopt a general Unit of Measurement, which will be the Diameter of the column at the base, this diameter, in the Greek Orders, being divided into sixty parts, called Minutes, which are as often used to form two Modules of 30 Parts each. The term "diameter" when used as a unit of measurement, always refers to the diameter through the bottom of the column or shaft directly above the mouldings at the base.
The diameter of the Roman column is divided into two modules as a unit of measurement. The Roman module is subdivided into twelve parts for the Doric Order, and eighteen parts for the Ionic and Corinthian Orders. Thus each module is equal to one-half a diameter and two modules in the Roman Order is the same unit as the diameter of sixty minutes in the Greek.
RESIDENCE OF MR. B. A. ECKART, LAKE FOREST, ILL.
W. Carbys Zimmerman, Architect, Chicago, 111.
Completed in the Fall of 1907. Wall of Colonial Brick; Columns of Reinforced Concrete; Green Tile Roof. This Building Exemplifies the Use of the Classic Column in a Modern Type of Residence, the Column being Structural, and also of Great Architectural Value in Emphasizing the Entrance Feature of the House. For Plan. See Opposite Page.
PLAN OF RESIDENCE OF MR. B. A. ECKART, LAKE FOREST, ILL.
W. Carbys Zimmerman, Architect, Chicago, 111.
The Front of the Building Faces East. A Feature of the Plan is the Way in which the Living Rooms are Separated from the Hall by Having the Floor-Level of these Rooms Two Steps above that of the Hall. The Hall Has a Vaulted Ceiling and Stone Fireplace. For Exterior, See Opposite Page.
Temple of Concord, Girgenti, Sicily. Showing early example of use of Greek Doric Order.
At the right of the Roman and at the left of the Greek Orders on Fig. 50, are shown lines marked for divisions in height, these divisions being multiples of the diameters at the base of the columns. The three Roman Orders given are all of the same diameter; and the three Greek columns, while larger at the base than the Roman examples, are also each of the same diameter. This plate, accordingly, indicates the comparative height, to one another, of each of the three Orders. In the Greek Orders, it will be noticed that the pedestal is omitted as consistently as it is included in the Roman examples. After briefly describing the three type-examples of the Greek Orders shown in this plate, they will each be examined and illustrated more particularly.
It will be noticed that the Doric Order is by far the heaviest in both sets of examples. The height of the Doric columns is seven diameters. Its cap, above the upper line of necking, is thirty minutes, or one-half a diameter. The height of the entablature is two diameters, the architrave being forty-two minutes and the cornice thirty-six minutes in height. In the Greek Doric, the architrave and frieze are each about three-fourths the diameter in height, the whole entablature being therefore about two diameters high.
The Greek Ionic column is nine diameters in height, with a base twenty-five minutes and capital twenty-eight and one-half minutes high. The entablature is two diameters high, consisting of an architrave of forty-five minutes, frieze of forty-three minutes, and cornice thirty-two minutes in height.
The Greek Corinthian column is ten diameters in height, the base twenty-five and the cap seventy minutes high; the entablature is two and one-fourth diameters high, with an architrave of forty-three minutes, the frieze of forty minutes, and the cornice of fifty-two minutes in height.
The projection of the cornices varies, in the Doric being thirty-three minutes, in the Ionic thirty-four minutes, and in the Corinthian forty-four minutes.