This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.

HOUSE FOR HON. J. M. GROSVENOR, SWAMPSCOTT, MASS. E. J. Lewis, Architect, Boston, Mass.

Plan of Ground Floor. PLAN OF HOUSE FOR HON. J. M. GROSVENOR, SWAMPSCOTT. MASS.

E. J. Lewis, Architect, Boston, Mass.

Exterior View Shown on Preceding Page.

Data to be used by student in solving plates. Leave all necessary construction lines. Letter all points, vanishing points, lines, etc., as found, in accordance with the notation given in the Text.

PROBLEMS I., II., III., IV., V., and VI. Find the per-spective of the point a. Also in each problem locate the positions of the point a, and of the station point, as follow : -

a | ------- inches | behind or in front | of picture plane. |

-------inches | above or below | the plane of the horizon. |

Station point-inches in front of the picture plane.

PROBLEMS VII. and VIII. Find the perspective of the line A.

PROBLEMS IX. and X. Find the perspective of the vanishing point of the system of lines parallel to the given line A.

PROBLEM XL Find from the given plan and elevation the perspective projection of the rectangular block.

The view to be shown is indicated by the diagram. The station point is to be 3¾ inches in front of the picture plane. The position of SPV is given. The perspective projection is to rest upon a horizontal plane 2 inches below the level of the eye. Invisible lines in the perspective projection should be dotted.

PROBLEM XII. To find the perspective of a cube the sides of which are 1 3/4 inches long, resting on a horizontal plane 1 inch below the observer's eye.

The nearest edge of the cube is about 1 1/8 inches behind the picture plane, as shown by the relation between the given diagram and HPP. The station point is to be 3| inches in front of the picture plane. The position of SPV is given. Invisible edges of the cube should be dotted in the perspective projection.

PROBLEM XIII. To find the perspective of a cube similar to that in the last problem.

The position of the cube is such that it intersects the picture plane as indicated by the relation between the given diagram and HPP. The cube is supposed to rest on the horizontal plane represented by VH1. The station point is to be 3| inches in front of the picture plane. The position of SPV is given. Invisible edges should be dotted in the perspective projection.

PROBLEM XIV. Block pierced by a rectangular hole.

The plan and elevation given in the figure represent a rectangular block pierced by a rectangular hole which runs horizontally through the block from face to face, as indicated. The diagram, HPP, and the position of SPV are given. The block is to rest on a horizontal plane 2| inches below the observer's eye. The observer's eye is to be 6 1/2 inches in front of the picture plane. Find the perspective projection of the block and of the rectangular hole. All invisible lines in the perspective projection should be dotted.

PROBLEM XV. Find the perspective projection of the house shown in plan, side and end elevations.

The diagram, HPP, and the projections of the station point are given. The house is supposed to rest on a horizontal plane 1 3/16 inch below the observer's eye. Invisible lines in this perspective projection need not be shown except as they may be needed for construction. All necessary construction lines should be shown ; but the points in the perspective projection need not be lettered, except ap, bp, ep, and dp

PROBLEM XVI.

The plate shows the plan, front, and side elevations of a house. In order to assist the student in understanding these drawings, an oblique projection (at one-half scale) is given, with the visible lines and planes lettered to agree with those in the plan and elevations.

The problem is, first, to find a complete Vanishing Point Diagram (§ 75) for the house in the position indicated by the given diagram; second, to draw the perspective projection of the house, resting on a horizontal plane six inches below the level of the observer's eye. The projections of the station point are given.

There will be, including the vertical system, eleven systems of lines and eight systems of planes in the vanishing point diagram.

Note. - The lines of these systems can most easily be identified by first finding their horizontal projections on the plan.

In finding the vanishing points for the different systems, the student should proceed in the following order : -

1st. Draw VH the vanishing trace for all horizontal planes.

2d. Find vab, the vanishing point for all horizontal lines in the house that vanish to the right.

3d. Find vad, the vanishing point for all horizontal lines vanishing to the left.

4th. Find von. The line ox. forms the intersection of the planes N1 and U1 (see oblique projection). To this same system belong the lines rq, ts, and zy.

5th. Find vnm. The line nm forms the intersection of the planes M1 and U, (see oblique projection). To this same system belong the lines qp, vu, and xw.

6th. Find vh. The line fl forms the intersection of the planes S and V1. The line jk also belongs to this same system.

7th. Find vlg. The line lg forms the intersection of the planes R and V,. The line kh also belongs to this system.

8th. Find vdj. The line dj forms the intersection of the planes P and M. To this same system belongs the line which forms the intersection of the planes P and M1

9th. Find vgb. The line gb forms the intersection of the plains N and O. To this same system belongs the line which forms the intersection between the planes N1 and O.

10th. Draw the vanishing traces of the planes M, N, O, P, R, S, U, and V, checking the construction of the vanishing points already found.

11th. vaf will now be determined by the intersection of TP and TN (§ 74). The lines-forming the intersection of the plane P with the planes N and N1 will vanish at vaf.

In a similar manner vhc will be determined by the intersection of TM and TO. The lines forming the intersections of the plane O with the planes M and M1 will vanish at. v,hc.

The complete vanishing point diagram has now been found ; and it remains only to establish VH1 in accordance with the given data, and construct the perspective projection of the house. A bird's-eye view has been chosen for the perspective projection in order to show as many of the roof lines as possible.

Each visible line in the perspective projection should be continued by a dotted construction line, to meet its particular vanishing point.

This problem will require more care in draughting than any of the previous ones, and the angles of the lines in revolved plan and elevation should be laid off with great precision. The student should not attempt to make the perspective projection until the vanishing point diagram is drawn with accuracy.

PROBLEM XVII.

From the given data construct a perspective projection, using the plan of view for a diagram as indicated. HPP, VH1 SPV, and SPH are given.

This plate need not be lettered, except as the student may find it an aid in construction.

RESIDENCE OF MR. ARTHUR T. STILSON, MONTCLAIR, N. J.

A. F. Norris, Architect, New York. A Large Ionic Order Used on the Front Porch. For First-Floor Plan, See Following Page.

RESIDENCE OF MR. ARTHUR T. STILSON, MONTCLAIR, N. J.

A. F. Norris, Architect, New York. For Exterior, See Preceding Page.

PROBLEM XVIII. Construct, by the method of perspective plan, a perspective projection of the object shown in the given plan and elevations.

HPP and VH are to be taken coincident (§ 107), as indicated on the plate.

The vanishing points (vAb and vad) for the two systems of horizontal lines in the object are given. The line ah is to make an angle of 60° with the picture plane.

VH2, is the vertical trace of the horizontal plane on which the perspective plan is to be drawn. The corner (ap) of this plan is given. The perspective projection of the object is to rest on the horizontal plane determined by VH1.

An oblique projection of the object is given to assist in reading the plan and elevations.

The student may use his discretion in lettering this plate. No letters are required except those indicating the positions of the station point and the measure points.

AN EXAMPLE OF A WELL RENDERED DRAWING.

Note the gradation of the shadows on the building from dark at the top to light at the bottom background from dark at the bottom to light at the top.

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