This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The Tholos at Epidauros. In Plate L both the exterior and interior treatment of the Tholos at Fpidauros are shown in detail. We again find that this instance of the use of the Corinthian Orders must be taken as a most beautiful and individual example. The treatment of the entire entablature is evidently strongly influenced by its location on the interior of the building. While the architrave has not been varied much from the usual type, the frieze is shown as a delicate ogee moulding, and the crowning member or cornice partakes more of the nature of the dado or pedestal cap which we afterwards find used by the Romans, than the usual entablature-cornice. This column, as well as that of Lysicrates, has twenty-four flutes separated from each other by the now customary fillet, and is eight and one-half diameters in height; the capital being exactly one diameter high, above the top of the astragal moulding.
Fig. 77. Cnoragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens, Upper Part Restored.
Not the least interesting part of this building is the form of the Greek Doric Order which we find here used. Belonging to this late period, it may perhaps be considered as a refinement upon this Order, even as used in the Parthenon. It is certainly quite as refined an instance, while the ornamented and less severe character which it is here given is commendable, considering the use of the columns on a building of circular plan (Fig. 78). The crowning cheneau (Plate L), with the lion's head for the waterspout, is unusually beautiful; while the Greek fret, used both here and on the interior entablature of the building, is the form to which the Greeks themselves are most partial and which they evidently considered as the most interesting development of this purely geometrical ornament to which they had attained. The carving of the separate members, from the interior entablature, shown in detail on this same plate, is exceptionally beautiful and pure in its type; while the running dog, taken from the panel in the soffit of the ambulatory between the Corinthian columns and the wall of the building, is especially interesting in its sectional treatment.
Fig. 78. Plan of the Tholos at Epidauros.
The column here employed is higher than in the earlier examples, being ten diameters in height; but it will be observed that most of this additional height is taken up by the capital itself, while the height of the shaft remains practically the same.
Greek Corinthian Capital. From the Tholos, Epidauros GREEK-ORINHIAN-ORDER.
Fig. 79. PLATE XLVII.
(A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XLVII).
General Type of Corinthian Order. The shaft of the Corinthian column is grooved with twenty-four channels, the same in number and in shape as those which ornament the Ionic column. The base is also the same; and it is the elevation of the capital, with its drawn-out narrow form, that adds apparent height to the shaft and makes the Corinthian column appear more elegant.
The height of the Corinthian entablature is two diameters and one-half, the diameter being, as always, taken at the bottom of the shaft. These proportions, although generally admitted, are not invariable; but they may be considered as a mean, founded on the examples of which we know, although they are admittedly very few in number.
The entablature differs but slightly from the one we have already seen on the Ionic Order in the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene, shown in Plate XLVI; and a comparison of this example with Plate XLVII will show what slight change has been made from this cornice in its general proportions.
The architrave is divided into three bands or fascias, and the frieze is plain, or is ornamented with detached figures sculptured after a naturalistic fashion.
The proportions of the cornice to the entire entablature are somewhat changed from the typical Ionic form, as it is heavier and more in the relation to the whole that it afterwards bore in Roman work. The dentil, which first appeared in the Ionic cornice, has by now attained a more definite denticular expression, and we find this member used in the Corinthian cornice on both the Temple of the Winds and the Monument of Lysicrates. The Greeks evidently first used the regular Ionic entablature with this new capital; but the necessity for a heavier and more elaborate cornice to go with it was at once generally apparent, so the denticular cornice, which had been tried a few times with the regular Ionic column, was evidently adopted as more appropriate for use with this richer Order. And hereafter we find that the denticular cornice is rarely used with the Greek Ionic order within Greece itself.
In the Order (Fig. 79) from Asher Benjamin, is a detail of the Corinthian capital with the principal dimensions for the different parts of the Order of which it composes a part. To epitomize the study of this Order, Plate XLVIII shows in a sort of parallel the assembled three most curious types of Corinthian capitals of which we know. These are from the Monument of Lysicrates, the Porch from the Tower of the Winds, and the Capital of the Tholos at Epidauros.
It is in the Ionian villages of Asia Minor that the Order was most used for the decoration of the porticos and cellas of temples; and the capital from the Temple of Zeus at Athens is the type most frequently used in Asia Minor and in Italy. After the Roman conquest it was frequently employed; and, transplanted to Rome, the version of the Corinthian Order there developed met with the greatest favor.
Caryatids. The Greeks, in place of columns, occasionally used the figures denominated caryatids for the support of their entablatures, the most famous example of which is the porch of the Triple Temple of the Erechtheum at Athens. It is possible that the use of human figures for this purpose may have been suggested by some of the earlier Egyptian piers or columns carved with the figures of kings and gods.
The use of a human figure in the place of a column to support an entablature, may be considered as possibly a. fourth Greek "Order." There are two varieties of this Order, the Persic and the Caryatid.
The Persic corresponds to the Doric column, the statue of a man taking the place of the shaft, and the entablature here still partakes of the Doric character; while in the Caryatid Order the column is replaced by a woman, and the entablature partakes more of an Ionic-character.
The Persic Order was employed in the cella of the gigantic Temple of Zeus at Agrigentum; and it seems to have been often used as the second Order which we find placed over the column in the center aisle of many Greek temples to support the entablature, on which in turn rested the covering of the naos or nave.
We find on the Acropolis at Athens, on the face of the Erechtheum towards the Parthenon, a superb example of the Caryatid order Fig. 80). This is the only instance of the use of figures to replace columns in this position, where they take the place of a principal Order and are actually placed in direct comparison, by their close juxtaposition, to large Ionic shafts. The caryatids are kept in scale with the building and surroundings, and still attain the requisite height by the simple expedient of placing them upon a short section of wall, or pedestal, treated with an ornate Ionic antae cap and base-mould (Fig. 81). This is practically the first instance of the stylobate being given such a distinctive and different treatment; and. it was not till almost 100 years later that the columns of the Monument of Lysicrates were placed on their raised basement or pedestal, a custom which the Romans later adopted in many of their buildings.
PLATE XLVIII. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XLVIII).
Fig. 80. Porch of the Caryatides, the Erechtheum. Athens.
In place of capitals, these statues carry on their heads a sort of cushion of round mouldings (Fig. 82), which in turn carries the entablature. But though the entablature approaches that of the Ionic Order in the richness and elegance of its decoration, and presents a most beautiful similarity to the Ionic, we notice that the frieze of the entablature is completely suppressed. In effect the cornice rests directly on the mouldings crowning the architrave.
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The caryatid sometimes supported a complete Ionic or Corinthian capital upon its head, in the place of the mouldings found on the caryatid in the Erechthenm tribune, though there is no extant example belonging to a good epoch, of such treatment.