This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Fig. 60. View Showing Two Faces of Ionic Capital.
Fig. 61. Ionic Column.
The Plain Ionic Capital. There are two kinds of capital used with the Athenian Greek Ionic Orders, one known as the plain and the other as the decorated or ornamented capital. The type of the plain capital is shown in Plate XLII, at a large size and with the necessary constructive measurements. This example was taken from the four-columned porch of the Temple of Nike Apteros, or the Wingless Victory, on the Acropolis at Athens, and has been slightly changed from the original in one particular, by drawing in the volute eye of the capital slightly toward the center of the column from each side, thus doing away with a certain awkwardness in the extreme projection (when seen from the front) of the volutes in the original. This variation is only of three parts, but it better fits the capital for more general use. The variety of the Attic base used in this example, is shown on the same plate. The roll or end of the volute, as shown in this plate, is extremely simple, even for this plain type of capital; and it is often decorated or carved with some simple leaf ornament, as is shown in Plate XLVI and Figs. 65 and 66.
PLATE XLII. (a reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XLII).
Temple of Nik Apteros on the Acropolis, Athens. Showing use of Greek Ionic Column with Plain Capital and Ornamented Frieze.
TWO - CAPITALS -FOR-ANGULAR-USE
Fig. 62. Examples of Doric Corner Capitals. (Section looking up.).
Fig. 63. Typical Ionic Corner and Regular Capitals. (Section looking up.).
The column used with the plain Greek Ionic capital is shorter in proportion than the example used with the ornamented capital from the Erechtheum. In the Temple on the Ilissus at Athens, the column in this instance being only about 14 1/2 feet high, the form of capital and proportioning of column more nearly approach the type afterwards adopted as distinctively Roman. Other Greek variations of a similar form are those used in the Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, near Miletus, and the Aqueduct of Hadrian at Athens (Fig. 65); and in the Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene, and the Ionic capital from Athens, shown together in the same illustration (Fig. 66). In these two plates the upper half of the plan belongs, in each instance, to the cap shown in one-half front and one-half end elevation above it. while the lower half of the plan belongs to the capital shown in the same manner below.
The Decorated Ionic Capital. The decorated capital has, in addition to the echinus moulding below the band forming the volutes and treated with an egg-and-dart, a frieze or necking carved with a honeysuckle ornament, separating the capital from the fluted shaft of the column, and defined at the bottom by an astragal moulding. This necking is elaborately carved with some such ornament as that shown on Plate XLIII, in which this capital is drawn out at a large size with constructional figures. This is the capital from the Portico of the Temple of Minerva Polias, or the North Porch of the Erechtheum at Athens. This porch is shown at a large size in Plate XLIV. It is these columns which we have already mentioned as swelling out 1/134 of their diameter before tapering to the neck. The doorway of this porch is drawn out more particularly in Figs. 83 and 84.
Fig. 64. Ionic Column from Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Phigalia.
PLATE XLIII. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XLIII )
Ornamented Greek Ionic Capita From Erechtheum. Athens.
In the drawing of this capital in Plate XLIII, it will be noticed that the face of the volute is much more elaborately moulded than the simpler example shown in Plate XLII, and has in addition an entirely new set of members in the center of its flattened scotia, while all its parts are more elaborately and finely cut. An ornamental torus, which is not shown in other types of Greek Ionic capitals, also appears above the egg-and-dart and below the band moulding. The square abacus above the band of this capital is invariably carved in the ornamental type, while in the plain capital it is sometimes left unadorned. This capital, with necking, should be used only with a taller and more slender shaft than the other type requires.
Fig. 65. Typical Decorations of Ionic Capital.
Fig. 66. Typical Decorations of Ionic Capital.
The ornamented Ionic capital may be considered as the more distinctively Greek, inasmuch as the Romans, in adopting the Ionic column and its capital, followed out more closely the idea shown in the simpler type, while the Greeks themselves have proclaimed their partiality for the more decorated form by using it in the most elaborate single temple which they have left us, that of the Erechtheum.