This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
General Type of Greek Ionic Order. By referring to plate XLI and Fig. 50, the description of this order can be better comprehended. The architrave produces an entirely different effect from the one used with the Doric Order, and, while left plain in some cases, it is ordinarily divided into two or three bands by small horizontal projections, and is crowned with various mouldings, often ornamented with the egg-and-dart or with reel and bead. The ordinary measure of the height of the architrave is about equal to three-fourths of the column diameter. The frieze, a little less high than the architrave, is, as before, crowned with ornate cornice mouldings. These friezes are merely plain surfaces, and in the Greek Orders are more often enriched by carving. If decorated, it is generally with bas-reliefs in the nature of a procession of some sort, continuing without interruption all around the entablature (Fig. 77). The cornice is simpler and even lighter in proportion than that of the Doric Order, on account of the added height of the column; while it is composed entirely of simple bands of mouldings. Indeed, throughout the entablature of this Order, it is the horizontal lines that are emphasized.
The Ionic cornice is less than one diameter in height, the corona projecting over the line of the frieze by a distance equivalent to the height of the cornice. It possesses an inclined soffit supported by a bed-mould composed of different members, sometimes ornamented with the egg-and-dart, and in late work often contains an additional course of dentils or brackets. It is surmounted by other mouldings and the cornice is ended by a cyma especially decorated with a honeysuckle ornament and with heads of lions serving as waterspouts. The mean height of the cornice is about one-quarter that of the whole entablature which bears a ratio to the height of the column of about 2 to 9, or a little more than two diameters.
PORTICO OF TEMPLE OF MINERVA POLIAS
PLATE XLIV. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XLIV).
FIROT FLOOR PLAN. PLAN OF VIRGINIA LIBRARY, MeCORMICK THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, CHICAGO, ILL.
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects, Chicago. For Exteriors, See Page 90.
ENGINEERING BUILDING OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELPHIA, PA.
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, OAK PARK. ILL.
Pond & Pond, Architects, Chicago, 111.
The Erechtheum. The Erechtheum or Triple Temple at Athens is an exceptional plan in Greek work, and requires special explanation. This Triple Temple, situated on the north side of the Acropolis, was devoted to the worship of three separate deities. The principal front, a six-column porch, was termed the Temple of Erechtheus, and was connected through the passageway at the side (see plan, Fig. 67) with the Temple of Minerva Polias, which had its entrance or portico at the side towards the north. To this porch belongs the doorway that is separately described. Opposite this portico, on the south side of the building and facing towards the Parthenon, is the Tribune or Porch of the Caryatides, (Fig. 80) or the Temple of Pandrosus. The caryatides are placed on a very high stylobate, or basement, beautifully moulded and carved. It will be seen that the main body of the building itself, leaving out these north and south porches, follows the same simple plan whose development we have already traced; and it is only in viewing the exterior of the building (Fig. 68), that any confusion on this point might arise.
There are no less than three different sets of columns of the Ionic Order employed on this building. The principal one is at the east end or front, with a subsidiary column of almost the same height on the porch of Minerva Polias, while the west or rear wall of the building is decorated with four attached Ionic columns of the same order in antis, these being of a still smaller size and having windows placed in the spaces between them. This building may be considered as the most pretentious and highly enriched example of Greek temple architecture; combining, as it does, the use of the graceful Ionic Order in what was to the Greeks its most ornamented and highest developed form, with the addition of the beautiful and unique Porch of the Caryatides. The combination in one group of these three temples was evidently considered by their creators as a tour de force; while the way in which the portico to the Temple of Minerva Polias is arranged-so as to place its center on the axis of the door to this temple and still tie it in to the whole composition, even though it projects beyond the end of the body of the building-is a naive and most successfully natural solution of the problem.
Fig. 67. Plan of Erechtheum.
Fig. 68. General View of North Porch of Erechtheum, Athens.
PLATE XLV. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plate XLV).
We have already seen that this building, the Erechtheum, furnishes two, or more property three, uses of the column of this Order. On the four-columned North Porch of the Temple of Minerva Polias (Fig. 68) and on the six-columned main entrance to the Temple of the Erechtheum at the east, very similar forms of the capital are employed. These two different columns, the first a little over twenty-five and the second a little over twenty-one feet in height, are placed under the same entablature, and should be accepted as the highest development of the ornamented Greek Ionic form. Besides this, a smaller column of the same type is used at the west end between the window openings, but attached to the wall behind it.