This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Fig. 207 shows a part plan of a roof and chimney A, around which the flashing B C D E is to be placed, and explains how the corners c and D are double seamed, whether on a chimney, bulkhead, or any other object on a roof when the water flows in the direction of the arrow F. The first operation is shown at a and the final operation at b. Thus it will be seen that the water flows past the seam and not against it. In laying flat seam roofing especially when copper is used, allowance must be made for the expansion and contraction of the sheets.
Care should be taken not to nail directly through the sheet as is shown in W, Fig. 201. While this method is generally employed in tin roofing, on a good job, as well as on copper roofing, cleats as shown at
D in Fig. 208 should be used.
To show how there are used, A and B represent two locked-edged sheets. The lock on the clear D is locked into the edge of the sheets and nailed into the roof boards at a, b, c and d, are as often as required.
In this manner the entire roof can be fastened with cleats without having a nail driven into the sheets, thereby allowing for expansion and contraction of the metal. The closer these cleats are played, the firmer the roof will be and the better the seams will hold. By using fewer cleats, time may be saved in laying the roof, but double this time is lost when soldering the seams, for the heat of the soldering copper will raise the seams, causing a succession of buckles, which retard soldering and require 10 per cent more shoulder. When the seams are mailed or closed it lays flat and smooth and the soldering is done with ease and less solder.
When a connection is to be made between metal and stone or terra cotta, the method shown in Fig. 209 is employed. This illustration shows a stone or terra-cotta cornice A The heavy line a b c d represents the gutter lining, which is usually made from 20-oz. cold-rolled copper. If the cornice A is of stone, the stone cutter cuts a raggle into the top of the cornice A as at B, dove-tail in shape, after which the lining a b c d is put in position as shown. Then, being careful that there is no water or moisture in the raggle B, molten lead is poured into the raggle and after it is cooled it is dressed down well with the caulking chisel and hammer.
By having the dove-tail cut, the lead is secured firmly in position, holding down the edge of the lining and making a tight joint. Should the cornice be of terra cotta this raggle is cut into the clay before it is baked in the ovens. This method of making connection between metal and stone is the same no matter whether a gutter or upright wall is to be flashed. When a flashing between a stone wall and roof is to be made tight, then instead of using molten lead, cakes of lead are cast in molds made for this purpose, about 12 inches long, and these are driven into the raggle B as shown in Fig. 209 at X.
The most important step in roofing is the soldering. The style of soldering copper employed is shown in Fig. 210 and weighs at least 8 pounds to the pair. When rosin is used as a flux, it is also employed in tinning the coppers, but when acid is used as a flux for soldering zinc or galvanized iron, salammoniac is used for tinning the coppers. It will be noticed that the soldering coppers are forged square at the ends, and have a groove filed in one side as shown at A. When the copper is turned upward the groove should be filed toward the lower side within 1/4 inch from the corner, so that when the groove is placed upon the seam, as shown in Fig. 211, it acts as a guide to the copper as the latter is drawn along the seam. The groove a being in the position shown, the largest heated surface b rests directly on the seam, "soaking" it thoroughly with solder. As the heat draws the solder between the locks, about 6 pounds of 1/2 and 1/2 solder are required for 100 square feet of surface using 14 x 20-inch tin. The use of acid in soldering seams in a tin roof is to be avoided as acid coming in contact with the are edges and corners, where the sheets are folded and seamed together, will cause rusting. No other soldering flux but good clean rosin should be employed. The same flux (rosin) should be used when soldering copper roofing whose edges have previously been tinned with rosin.
HOUSE AT MONTECITO, CALIFORNIA.
Myron Hunt & Elmer Grey, Architects, Los Angeles, Cal.
Cost, Approximately $40.000. Walls of Local Stone. Roofs of Japanese Tile of Metallic Composition Containing Aluminum and other Ingredients which, under Erosion of the Weather, Become Partially Disintegrated, Giving Beautiful Bronze Color Effects. For Plans, See Page 154; for View of Terrace, See Page 186.
PLAN OF HOUSE AT MONTECITO, CALIFORNIA.
Myron Hunt & Elmer Grey, Architects, Los Angeles, Cal.
We will now consider the soldering of upright beams. The soldering copper to be employed for this purpose is shaped as shown in Fig. 212. It is forged to a wedge shape, about 1 inch wide and 1/4 inch thick at the end, and is tinned on one side and the end only; if tinned otherwise, the solder, instead of remaining on the tinned side when soldering, would flow downward; by having the soldering copper tinned on one aide only, the remaining sides are black and do not tend to draw the solder downward. The soldering copper being thus prepared, the upright seam, shown in Fig. 213, where the sheet B overlaps the sheet A 1", is soldered by first tacking the seam to make it lay close, then thoroughly soaking the seam, and then placing ridges of solder across it to strengthen the same. In using the soldering copper it should be held in the position shown by C, which allows the solder to flow forward and into the seam, while if the copper were held as shown by D, the solder would flow backward and away from the seam. in "soaking" the seam with solder the copper should be placed directly over the lapped part, so that the metal gets thoroughly heated and draws the solder between the joint. It makes no difference where this cross joint occurs; the same methods are used.