One great objection to the construction of solid concrete walls is the cost and inconvenience entailed by the use of the temporary scaffoldingand shutters, and the objection has special force in the case of buildings of irregular shape. Combined brick-and-concrete walls have therefore been sometimes adopted, as shown in figs. 44 and 45, the brick skins taking the place of the temporary shutters. Mr. John Gethin, A.R.I.B.A., has used walls of this kind, 15 inches thick, in exposed situations in Wales, and has found them to be not only very strong but also perfectly water-tight. The concrete was composed of one part of Portland cement and five parts of aggregate; the bricks were laid in Flemish bond, all the headers being "snap"-headers, except those shown in the illustrations.

Brick Or Stone Walls With Concrete Hearting 10048Fig  44 and 45 Brick and Concrete Wall.

Fig- 44 and 45-Brick and Concrete Wall.

This method of construction can be adopted for thicker walls with greater economy, and, of course, is applicable to stone-faced walls as well as to brick Such walls cannot harbour vermin, and for this reason are preferable to hollow walls, besides being also less flimsy.

A special kind of glazed brick, known as Shoppee's patent brick, has recently been introduced for use in such walls; no headers are required, sufficient key being obtained by means of a dove-tail projection at the back, as shown in Fig. 46. This brick is also used to form the soffits of concrete floors, arched and flat.

The Cockrill-Doulton Patent Tiles fulfil the same purpose. They are L-shaped tiles, measuring 9 inches by 6 inches on the, face, and 2 inches on the base or bed. A course of tiles is laid on each fare of the wall, and the intermediate space filled with soft concrete, care being taken not to disturb the tiles during the operation; and so course by course. As the tiles are glazed, and therefor, practically impervious and non-absorbent, walls properly constructed in this manner are likely to be dry and durable, besides being clean and of pleasing appearance. The tiles are made in brown salt-glazed stoneware, cream enamelled stoneware, and with glazes of various colour; and moulded tiles are also made as shown in Fig. 47. Quarter-circle tiles are made for the internal angles of walls and for the angles between walls and floors, but in the latter situation - if the floor be of wood - the angle-hollow should be of wood, scribed to fit the tiles above and properly jointed to the wood flooring.

Concrete walls may be faced externally with ordinary brick or stone, and internally with these tiles, or vice versa. The tiles are now made with a dovetail projection along the back, about 2 inches from the upper edge, to give better adhesion for the concrete.

Fig. 46. shoppee's Patent Brick.

Fig. 46.-shoppee's Patent Brick.

Fig 47.   Concrete Wall faced with Cockrill. Doulton Patent Tiles.

Fig 47. - Concrete Wall faced with Cockrill. Doulton Patent Tiles.