This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol1", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
Small squint piers with rebated jambs must be devised for each particular case, as shown in Fig. 109, but larger ones may be formed on the same system as squint piers with plain jambs. The jambs being laid first, the facings are then filled in, and the quoin cut to fit. The interior is then filled with headers and the smallest possible number of the largest possible pieces. Figs.
In Fig. 110 the quoin is rather small, and an expedient sometimes resorted to to remedy this defect is shown in the lower drawing, which illustrates the arrangements of bricks round the external angle. The closer may be of any size, so long as it is neither small enough to need a quoin brick more than 9 inches long nor large enough to make the quoin brick too small.
English Cross Bond is a variety of English bond in which the stretching course breaks joint with the alternate stretching courses, as well as with the heading courses. It is formed in two ways. First, by inserting a header next to the quoin stretcher in every other stretching course, as shown in Fig. 112; and secondly, by dispensing with closers and using threequarter bats as quoins in all the stretching courses and headers next to these quoins in every other stretching course, as in Fig. 113. Its name is derived from the appearance of its facings, which appear to be composed of a number of crosses interlocking with one another, as shown by the shaded portions in Figs. 112 and 113.
The variety of English cross bond shown in Fig. 113 is very much used in Holland, for which reason it is also known as Dutch Bond.
The longitudinal strength of a thick wall is small in proportion to that of a thin wall, on account of the large proportion of headers used in the interior of the latter, and for the same reason the transverse strength of a thick wall is large in proportion to that of a thin wall. Hence it follows that the thicker a wall is the greater is the difference between so transverse and longitudinal strength, and it therefore becomes necessary to strengthen thick walls longitudinally. This is done by means of Raking Bond, of which there are two kinds - Diagonal Bond and Herring-Bone Bond.
Diagonal Bond is the name applied to Courses of brickwork which have the facings laid in the ordinary manner, but have the interiors filled up with bricks laid diagonally across the wall, as in Figs. 114 and 115. This form of bond is used on walls from 2 to 4 bricks thick. Fig. 115 shows one course of diagonal brickwork in a 3 1/2-brick wall, the mode of building which is as follows: Lay the facings and fill up the angle as in ordinary English bond. Next place the brick A with the corners a and b touching the facings, and with its sides forming an angle of about 31 degrees with the two adjacent faces of the wall. The bricks B and C are then placed end to end with A, and adjusted to a straight line, and the corners a, b, and c made to touch the facings. The rest of the course is then filled in as shown. This method gives a maximum number of whole bricks in the interior of the course with the minimum amount of cutting. The diagonal work is sometimes carried round the angle, but this involves a large amount of cutting. The other wing is filled up in precisely the same manner.