This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol6", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
Hospital buildings have scarcely up to the present received the attention they deserve and require, and there is great need in almost all the colonies for new and up-to-date buildings of this class.
In large towns, separate hospitals are required, and are usually built for whites and natives either in the same grounds or on different sites. In the smaller communities, however, the planning is complicated by having to provide for both classes as well as both sexes in each, with necessary sanitary accommodation for each and all.
In the case of small hospitals, the block plans given in Fig. 313 show, perhaps, the best way of solving the problem where this is necessary, by means of wards which radiate from a central administrative block.
It is advisable to provide large floor spaces per bed, and broad separate stoeps or verandahs, both for shade and for the use of convalescents. Ventilation, too, requires even more study and care than is necessary in most countries.
Owing to the many consumptives who have been and are making their home in South Africa, the question of suitable sanatoria for open-air treatment is receiving much attention, and before long, no doubt, several suitable and well-studied buildings will be erected. Fig. 314 shows a small sanatorium for consumptives proposed to be erected in a Karoo village (Cape Colony) as soon as funds are available. The plan is as simply arranged as possible in order to keep down the cost, and the probability of future extension has been kept in view.
Hotels All the large towns possess hotels of considerable magnitude, often designed with considerable architectural attractiveness, and with well studied and suitable accommodation.
In hotel planning on an ordinary street site balconies are desirable to as many of the rooms which face the street or streets as possible. All internal rooms should be lighted by large and well-ventilated areas or courts, and a flat roof is an advantage, arranged with a suitable access to it by means of stairs and lifts.
Fitted with awnings, it can be well used for tea and restaurant purposes.
Besides the ordinary hotel requirements, a winter garden with fountain is an additional attraction in large hotels, and in many instances a small suite of Turkish baths in the basement is added besides. The kitchen and service arrangements need planning with great care, the kitchens in most instances being best located on the top storey.
Government Buildings South Africa contains no particularly notable legislative or parliamentary buildings at present. The Parliament Houses in the various colonial capitals are generally designed in a somewhat debased Classic style, and are commonplace and unattractive, although fairly well planned as regards internal arrangements.
Both the Cape and Orange River Colonies - particularly the first named - contemplate building Law Courts of considerable magnitude. Although colonial law and legal procedure differ considerably from the English, the planning of these buildings presents comparatively few distinctive features in their general arrangement.
New Stock Exchange Johannesburg S.A.
A=Entrance Hall B=Members Lobby C=Exchange Hall.
D=Safe Deposit E=Lavatory F= Open Areas
H = Lift
K= Strong Rooms
Fig. 317. The Remainder Of The Rooms Are Offices
Owing to the judges' chambers being often used for the hearing of applications, their position is of great importance in the general scheme. They are usually about 400 to 450 feet super., with a room about 180 feet super. adjoining, for the use of the judge's clerk. No grand jury room is necessary, as the grand jury system is not employed in any of the colonies, but the necessity of providing accommodation for coloured male and female witnesses, entirely separated from the remainder of the building, is often a source of great difficulty.
The Government Offices at Bloemfontein, illustrated in Fig. 315 by plans, elevation, and section, are fairly typical of the general arrangements of these buildings.
The portion of the building of which the walls are left in outline was erected in comparatively early days. The remainder has not long been completed from designs by Messrs. Baker & Massey, who, as several more departments required housing, were commissioned to re-model the old buildings and design the additions, shown in full black.
Climatic conditions were much studied, and as a result the new buildings were grouped round a quadrangle, and have proved admirably adapted to departmental needs. Each of the new departments is approached from the corridor running round the quadrangle, and the various suites of rooms are connected by doors. The principal departments are placed in the older portion of the building, the central approach of which is still the main entrance. Subsidiary entrances are obtained on each of the other three fronts. The quadrangle is formally laid out and planted with orange trees, and it is intended to place a fountain in the centre at some future date.
The Stock Exchange, Johannesburg.
[Messrs. Leck & Emley, Architects.
The Old Dutch tradition is followed in the designing of the newer portions of the building, which has been carried out in brick and stone with red Marseilles tiled roof.
Fig. 316 shows the Telephone Exchange erected for the Durban Corporation, which has lately been completed, the design by Messrs. Stott & Kirkby having been selected in open competition. The plan is, of course, arranged to meet the peculiar requirements of an up-to-date telephonic system, yet it is open to several minor objections of cramped passages and rooms and an awkwardly arranged lift.
The whole building is as far as possible of fireresisting construction, the floors being of concrete and steel, covered with either teak blocks or glazed imported tiles.
The entrance hall is laid in mosaic. A portion of the ground under has been excavated to contain the necessary fittings for the installation.
Fig. 317 and Plate VIII. illustrate the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, designed by Messrs. Leek & Emley, which is decidedly the most important building of its kind in South Africa, and indeed will bear comparison with similar buildings in any part of the world.
It is erected on a fine open site in the middle of Johannesburg, and contains about 225 offices, with lavatories on all floors. The offices, corridors, etc., are all heated by means of radiators.
The four elevations are treated in red brick with stone dressings in a free and yet scholarly Classic manner. Internally, the walls of the exchange hall are lined with marble, and have an ornamental tile dado. The columns are of scafiola with bronze bases and terra-cotta caps. The illustration of the interior (Plate VIII.) shows the exchange hall in process of construction, and is of considerable interest on account of the pendentives and domes thus nakedly displayed.