This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
288. The nose, being the most prominent feature of the face requires special care when modeling. Usually it is the dividing line of light, the bridge receiving a strong high-light, extending the full length of the nose. This highlight is strengthened or flattened by the manner in which the light falls on the nose. A strong side lighting will give more prominence to the ridge line. In a broad front lighting it is subdued and may need strengthening to obtain prominence. In many instances this line becomes broader, or somewhat bent, about two-thirds of the way down, and in such cases this break must be straightened and penciled in.
289. As the shape of the high-light depends entirely upon the construction of the nose or the form of the cartilage, the greatest of care must be exercised not to spread the high-lights to any extent. Often it will be necessary to blend around the edge of the high-lights when they are harsh, or end abruptly, as the character of the individual is expressed, to a certain extent, by the shape of the nose; extreme care must be exercised when modeling this feature.
290. In removing the imperfections always begin on the highest point of light, and also begin here when modeling. Blend around the high-lights and then work down on the light side of the nose, leaving the shadow side until you retouch the shadow cheek. Proof prints should be made at each stage and used as a guide. This is important, especially when working on lines and in modeling.
291. In all subjects, the shape of the lines running
from the junction of the nose with the eyebrows determines the length or breadth of the face, and also very materially affects the appearance of the eyes. If these lines are lacking, or if the eyebrows are not well formed, continue the curve in a graceful line, as it naturally should be, and the appearance will be greatly improved. In some subjects the eyebrows are very closely connected. In extreme cases they form almost a straight line across the forehead, which appears very displeasing and should be modified. This you do by penciling away entirely the most objectionable portions, and modeling the remaining parts with a graceful curve.
292. Proof-prints made from the negative before any work has been applied, and numerous proofs made during the progress of your work, will assist you materially in determining when the work has been done right, and the correct amount of modeling has been accomplished. If the lines that run from the nose to the eyebrows are shortened, a thin face will be given a broader appearance, while a very fleshy face may be made to appear longer by lengthening these lines. The length of the nose itself is also changed in this way. Owing to this fact, extreme care must be exercised not to overdo any point sufficiently to change the character or likeness. People like to be flattered, but a complete and unnatural change must, by all means, be avoided.
293. The ridge of the nose must be clearly defined; otherwise the whole of the portrait will be flat and lifeless. Sometimes you will find it necessary to work a high-light on the ridge, in order to give relief to this feature and separate it from the middle tones. This must be done very carefully, as it is an easy matter to overdo the work and spoil the drawing and natural appearance.