Illustration No. 31. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 3 p. m., bright. Exposure - 14 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 94.)

Illustration No. 32. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 10 a. m., cloudy. Exposure - 20 minutes. Developer - pyro. The rear of the room was illuminated by means of magnesium ribbon. (See Page 97.)

Illustration No. 33. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss Wide-angle, focal-length 7 1/2 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 12:30 p. m., dull. Exposure - 15 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 98.)

Illustration No. 34. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 10 a. m., cloudy. Exposure - 20 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 101.)

Illustration No. 35. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss 7-A, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 10 a. m., cloudy. Exposure - 3 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 102.)

Illustration No. 35a. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss 7-A, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 16. Time of day - 1:30 p. m., bright sunshine on window. Developer - pyro. (See Page 103.)

Illustration No. 35b. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 9 a. m., dull. Exposure - 5 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 104.)

Illustration No. 36. Plate - Hammer Non-halation.

How the Studies Were Made. 41 1

Lens - Dallmeyer Wide-angle Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 8 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 4 p. m., bright. Exposure - 20 minutes. Developer - metol-hydro-quinon. (See Page 108.)

Illustration No. 37. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Dallmeyer Wide-angle Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 8 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 4 p. m., bright. Exposure - 10 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 109.)

Illustration No. 38. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Standard Wide-angle Anastigmat, focal-length 7 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 4:30 p. m. Exposure - 3 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 110.)

Illustration No. 39. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 16. Time of day - 5 p. m. Exposure - 15 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 111.)

Illustration No. 40. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Clark, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 10 a. m. The majority of the light came from the large skylight, yet the illumination of the shadows was assisted by a small flash of magnesium after the exposure of 20 minutes had been given. Developer - pyro. (See Page 112.)

Illustration No. 41. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Clark Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 10 A. m., bright. Exposure - 10 seconds, assisted by a heavy flash of pure magnesium. Developer - pyro. (See Page 113.)

Illustration No. 42. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Clark Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 2 p. m. Exposure - 20 seconds, assisted by a heavy flash of pure magnesium. Developer - pyro. (See Page 114.)

Illustration No. 43. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Clark Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Illumination - 1/2 ounce Luxo flash-powder. Developer - pyro. (See Page 117.)

Illustration No. 44. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Dallmeyer Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 16 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 11 a. m., cloudy. Exposure - one second. Developer - pyro. (See Page 118.)

Illustration No. 46. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Dallmeyer Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 16 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 3 p. m., cloudy. Exposure - 20 seconds. Developer - pyro. The camera was pointing up into the dome with the ground-glass laying flat on the floor. (See Page 121.)

Illustration No. 47. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Dallmeyer Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 16 inches. Bausch & Lomb Ray Filter. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 2 p. m. Exposure - 10 minutes. Developer - pyro. This ceiling photograph was made by guessing at the center of the picture and pointing the lens straight up, having the camera on the floor, the focus being secured by measurement. (See Page 122.)

Illustration No. 48. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss 7-A, focal-length 14 inches. B. & L. Ray Filter. Stop - U. S. 16. Time of day - 4 p. m., dull. Exposure - 30 seconds. Developer - pyro. (See Page 125.)

Illustration No. 49. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Clark Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 9 a. m., cloudy. Exposure - 10 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 126.)

Illustration No. 50. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Clark Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 11 a. m., cloudy. Exposure - 15 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 129.)

Illustration No. 52. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Standard Wide-angle Anastigmat, focal-length 7 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. The day was cloudy. Exposure - 20 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 141.)

Illustration No. 53. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Clark Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 3 p. m., dull. Exposure -

20 minutes. Developer - metol-hydroquinon. (See Page 145.)

Illustration No. 54. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss Wide-angle, focal-length 7 1/2 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 2 p. m., bright. The light came from two small windows. Exposure - 15 minutes. Developer - pyro. (See Page 149.)

Illustration No. 84. Plate - Cramer Crown. Lens - Voigtlander, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 1 p. m. Exposure - 1/2 second. Developer - pyro. (See Page 221.)

Illustration No. 85. Plate - Cramer Crown. Lens - Voigtlander Rectilinear, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Time of day - 3:30 p. m. Exposure - 1-5 second. Developer - pyro. (See Page 222.)

Illustration No. 92. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic. Lens - Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 18 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. The illumination - & ounces Luxo flash-powder. Developer - pyro. This picture was made under somewhat unusual circumstances, a studio camera having a curtain-slide plate-holder being used. The camera and flash machine were arranged and both loaded at 5 p. m. A member of the order who knew practically nothing of photography was instructed to pull the slide, take off the lens cap and pull the spring to ignite the flash-powder; then replace the cap and slide and leave the apparatus as it stood to be removed by the photographer. He followed the instructions perfectly, making the exposure at 8:30 p. m. The camera and flash machine remained in place until 11 o'clock. The plate was developed the next morning, resulting in an excellent flashlight negative. Although a couple of professional photographers were in attendance, it was preferred to allow a person entirely unfamiliar with photography to make the exposure, as such a person with a cool head would follow the instructions closely and not use his own ideas which might not coincide with the photographer in charge of the work. (See Page 237.)

Illustration No. 92a. Plate - Standard Orthochromatic.

Lens - Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss, focal-length 14 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Walls of the building - white. Time of day - 4 p. m. Illumination - one ounce Luxo flash-powder. Developer - pyro. (See Page 238.)

Illustration No. 95. Plate - Seed No. 26. Lens - Dall-meyer Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 16 inches. Stop - U. S. 32. Exposure - 3 ounces of flash-powder. Size of plate - 14x17 inches. Developer - pyro. (See Page 261.)

Illustration No. 99. Plate - Cramer. Lens - Dallmeyer

Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 16 inches. Stop - U. S. 32.

Time of day - 9 a. m., cloudy and weather cold. Exposure -

- 1/2 second. Developer - metol-hydroquinon. (See Page 269.)

Illustration No. 100. Plate - Hammer. Lens - Dallmeyer Wide-angle Rapid Rectilinear, focal-length 8 inches. Stop - U. S. 64. Time of day - 11 a. m., cloudy. Exposure - one second. Developer - metol-hydroquinon. (See Page 270.)

Illustration No. 52a was made at 3:30 p. m., on a bright day, the windows facing northeast. Plate used was an 8 x 10 Standard; lens used was a 6 1/2 x 8 1/2 Schriever Rectilinear, stopped down to U. S. 64; exposure given, 20 seconds. The plate was developed with pyro, according to formula and instructions given in Chapter XIII (Lesson Vii. Modeling The Forehead. Practice Work) (Lesson Vii. Modeling The Forehead. Practice Work), Volume II, Special Developing for Commercial Photography.

To develop I took 1 ounce of No. 1, 1 ounce of No. 2, and 8 to 10 drops of No. 3, and about 18 ounces of water. As the development advanced I added, every few minutes, a few drops of No. 3. The No. 3 was added only as the development seemed to have stopped. Complete development was accomplished in 30 minutes.