This section is from the "Studio Light Incorporating The Aristo Eagle - The Artura Bulletin 1917" book, by Aristo Motto. Also see Amazon: Studio Light Incorporating The Aristo Eagle - The Artura Bulletin 1917.
Occasionally the commercial photographer is called upon to make a copy of a composite picture such as an ordinary photograph ruled about with straight lines and possibly some printed matter, a subject similar to our illustration.
In this class of work the difficulty is to get a negative that will render the masses of detail and the solid lines and printed matter correctly and equally effective. An exposure that will be just sufficient to get the proper amount of contrast in the lines and printed matter will fail to give softness and detail in the photograph. Any attempt to get increased softness and more detail by increased exposure and development will result in a decrease in contrast in the black and white of the lines and printed matter.
One way to get a fairly approximate reproduction is to make an exposure for the proper rendering of contrast in the line and printed matter, then make a mask and cover all the copy except the full tone parts in which detail and softness are required, and give another exposure. In this way a more or less even negative can be secured.
A recent method worked out and applied practically, at the Research Laboratory at Kodak Park, secures with one exposure and an intensification dodge, the best possible result.
Here is the method: Expose and develop for softness and detail in the full tone portion of the copy, ignoring the lines and printed matter though including them of course. After fixing, wash thoroughly and remove surplus moisture, place the negative perfectly level, in a printing frame, on a printing machine for better illumination, and go over the line portion very carefully with the bleaching solution of Monckhoven's Intensifier. A camel's hair brush is used and great care must be taken to see that no bleaching solution is allowed to drop or run on to the parts that are required to be kept soft.
Monckhoven's Formula is as follows:
A. Bromide of Potassium, 10 grains. Bichloride of Mercury, 10 grains. Water..... 1 ounce.
B. Pure Cyanide of Potassium ...... 10 grains.
Nitrate of Silver . . 10 grains. Water..... 1 ounce.
The silver and cyanide are dissolved in separate lots of water and the silver added to the cyanide until a permanent precipitation is produced. The mixture is allowed to stand for fifteen minutes and after filtering forms Solution B.
After bleaching and washing the parts that require strengthening, the whole plate is flowed over with the blackening solution B , the procedure now being the same as for ordinary intensification. By these means the line and printed matter is intensified and the contrast between the black and white emphasized to give clear whites and deep blacks, while at the same time the photographic part of the copy retains all its softness and detail in highlight and shadow.
Artura Iris Print, From Eastman Portrait Film Negative By Barnum Studio Cincinnati, O.
The usual plate best suited to the particular results required should be used. In the case of our illustration a Seed 23 Plate was used.
It will be noted that Monck-hoven's formula calls for cyanide of potassium, and for the work in question - the production of strong contrasts - no other inten-sifier is anything like as efficient. Cyanide is not a desirable chemical to have in the dark room, because of its poisonous nature, and it should be handled with care and a due appreciation of its dangerous properties. Any cuts or sores on the hands should, of course, not be allowed to come in contact with either the crystals or the solution. It is used in quantities by the photo-engraver, and old time photographers who worked the wet plate process used it regularly, but those unaccustomed to the use of cyanide should understand that one or two grains of this chemical are fatal. It is advisable to make up a small solution as needed and pour any remaining solution down the sink.
Economy is a fine thing and any means of reducing waste is economy just so long as quality is not sacrificed. Just as it is economy to use fresh fixing baths and not overwork them, so it is economy not to overwork developers for Artura and similar papers.
The best economy of developer is in using as small a tray as possible for the size of prints that are being developed and having this tray deep enough to contain a quantity of solution. We have given an example of this economy before but it will bear repeating. A 9x11 tray will give a surface of 99 square inches of developer exposed to the air, while an 11x14 tray will give a surface of 154 square inches. If the same amount of developer is placed in each tray there will be 50% more oxidation of the developer in the larger tray and it will not develop as many prints as the same amount of solution of greater depth in the small tray.
The use of trays no larger than is necessary to handle prints is a real economy because any unnecessary oxidation is prevented. And to prevent oxidation is to lengthen the life of the developer and produce prints with the brilliancy and transparency which the paper is capable of yielding.
A little thing - your photograph - means much to those who taught you love for country.
The Pyro Studio Line cut No. 241. Price, 50 cents.
Send for the circular describing in detail the 1917 Kodak Advertising Competition in which Cash Prizes aggregating $3,000.00 are to be given for pictures suitable for use in Kodak advertising.
Artura Iris Print, From Eastman Portrait Film Negative.