This section is from the "Studio light a magazine of information for the profession 1918" book, by Sara F. T. Price. Also see Amazon: Studio light a magazine of information for the profession 1918.
"As I said before, highlights have form and texture; they should be made up of points of light with intervening shadows. But whenever a point of light strikes the emulsion of a glass plate, it not only goes through but is reflected back, and it has the thickness of the glass in which to spread. Because this halo is something you do not see it is none the less real. It is readily seen that this reflected light destroys those very small shadows which give detail and brilliancy in a highlight. This is partly overcome in some plates by backing' them with a substance which partially prevents this flare; these plates are then called non-halation.' This is a quality which is practically indispensable for serious work.
"Supposing that we take a red
By Jerome Chircosta Cleveland, O.
Irish setter, place it against a blue wall and photograph it with the ordinary non-ortho plate. The result will be a black dog against an almost pure white background. Suppose again that a golden haired little miss with bright blue eyes and ruddy checks, wants a large head made on a white background. Employing the same agents before mentioned, we have a raven-locked miss with eyes much too light to match the dark hair surrounding the dark little face. The only way we can save our reputation as a photographer is by quickly and immediately consigning plates and proofs to the flames before any eyes save our own have beheld our well-meant but misguided efforts. Saddened but enlightened by our experiences we take an orthochromatic plate and do it all over again, if we really are . in earnest, for a negative which records color values is essential and indispensable in this case. In fact I should say in light of past experience it is essential in any case. (Now just you wait, Mr. Critic; I haven't contradicted myself, yet.) While it is true that the qualities I have mentioned are indispensable in the ideal negative, there are two more without which the art may lose half its interest for the ones who practice it. These two are ease and certainty of manipulation' without which our play becomes work; our recreation drudgery; and photography ceases to be a pleasure. To the careless dabbler this last point may not appeal; for him it is not written. But to the careful worker who takes pride in his ability and who wants to make good work better, what I now say may be profitable.
"As I said before the ideal negative must have speed, latitude and color-sensitiveness. It must be practically non-halation and must be able to express correctly practically every range of contrast. These essentials coupled with ease and certainty of manipulation are found in the Eastman Portrait Film.
"Now I want it understood that I have absolutely no interest in any of Eastman's products save that which anyone takes who uses (and likes) any of his goods and wants to pass a good thing on.
"These film negatives are made on the same material as roll films. They are made both for portrait and commercial use, and both are handled practically alike. They can be used in any plateholder for any size plate, simply by using a filmholder' which fits in your plateholder precisely as does your plate. The same applies to any curtain-slide holder used on portrait cameras, except that the filmholder' is slighty different.
"It is my purpose to explain the method of handling the Portrait Film so as to obtain the best possible negative from every exposure; in fact how to arrange your lighting, make your exposure and carry on your development to attain the ideal negative.
EASTMAN PORTRAIT FILM NEGATIVE, ARTURA PRINT
By Jerome Chircosta Cleveland, O.
"Any room which is large enough to admit using a lens of six to ten inch focal length, which has one large, well lighted window is ample to make as good negatives as any professional knows how.
"Your subject should be dressed in medium or light clothes and seated about four to eight feet from the window, depending upon the strength of your light and the brilliancy desired in the negative.
"Your subject, if you intend to use the conventional lighting which is probably the easiest employed, should be seated with the left side to the light and should be placed carefully with the window slightly ahead.
"By all means use a bulb with a tube not less than five feet long. (You will see the reason for this later.) After seating your subject use a white piece of cloth about four feet square as a reflector to lighten the heavy shadow on the shadow side of the face. Now this shadow is the hardest part of your job. It must be lighted exactly, or else all the rest of your work is vain. Move your reflector about four to eight feet in front of your subject, keeping it directly in an even line with the face, not opposite as is generally done. Now carefully move this reflector toward and from your subject until you can see absolutely all the detail in the skin on the shadow side of the face. When this is accomplished leave that side alone.
"Now take any dark piece of cloth about two by three feet, and holding it between the window and your subject at a distance of about two feet, bring it carefully forward from the back of the head to a point opposite the ear. Notice carefully the difference this makes in the shape of the face. If you have lightened your shadows correctly, this would make the face assume a roundness which no other means can secure. Holding the bulb in the hand, you request the subject to remain quiet and make your exposure. You will now see the reason for employing a tube of so great length. It is also handy many times when you wish to darken a highlight which is too pronounced, as you may shade the light with one hand and make the exposure with the other at the same time.